Fëanor's Quenya name is Kurufinwe/Feanaro
Fëanor was perhaps
of the Elven kings and princes of the Ages of the Stars and the First
Born in Tirion to Miriel and Finwe
the King...Fëanor was a miracle of a
but came at great price. During his birth, Miriel passed away to
Halls of Mandos, as "the strength and life that would have nourished
have gone forth into Fëanor", the passing of Miriel brought the
that the Elves knew, to Finwe the king.
As the Silmarillion says, Fëanor grew swiftly and with talent. Though nowhere does it say he ever studied with Aule himself, he learned much of what he knew from Mahtan the smith and wedded his daughter, Nerdanel. (Not much is told of this marriage, other than that Nerdanel was the only one who could surpress Fëanor's inner fires, but that they became estranged sometime around the Darkening of Valinor, or perhaps when Fëanor and his sons took their Oath?) It was during his early life that Fëanor became the chief smith of the Noldor, he and his companions creating their stunning gems and other works. Also during the Bliss of Valinor, Fëanor gained two half brothers, and seven sons: Maedhros, Maglor, Celegorm, Caranthir, Curufin, Amrod, and Amras.
With the darkening of Valinor, the slaying of Finwe, and the rape of the Silmarils (as is told in the Silmarillion, anyone who hasn't read it should read it, so much more is added to the Tolkien experience), I believe Fëanor's jealousy of his brothers, and general paranoia (encouraged by Melkor) turned to insanity. Fëanor obviously loved his father Finwe greatly, and the Silmarils were his life. When Melkor took this from him, Fëanor took a large part of the Noldor to pursue Melkor. With the Kinslaying at Alqualonde, Finarfin left the march and ruled the remaining Noldor.
Here we come to the last part of Fëanor's legacy, with the oath he took with his Seven Sons (perhaps the most intriguing group of people in the Silmarillion) to pursue anyone who would keep a Silmaril from Fëanor and his line, and to take this oath in witness of Eru himself and call down the Everlasting Darkness upon them should they fail in this oath. By now Fëanor was obsessed with revenge on Melkor, causing him to press on to Beleriand at the cost of his half-brother Fingolfin's having to trek through the Helcaraxe.
In the Battle under the Stars, we see Fëanor exact his revenge, saving Beleriand and with his sons destroying Melkor's main force of orcs. It is when Fëanor pursued the fleeing legions to Angband, to be met by Gothmog, that Fëanor meets his doom. In his desperation and madness, Fëanor was within sight of Angband, presumably in the battle with Gothmog and his Balrogs. Fëanor may even have slain several of them, but Gothmog defeated him.
Mortally wounded, Fëanor was rescued by his sons, but it was too late. As he died, Fëanor's inner fire was so strong that it consumed his body. We could rightly assume that Fëanor was not released from the halls of Mandos to be reembodied as many Elves, but perhaps he finally found peace 600 years later, after the War of Wrath, when he could join his father, sons, and mother in bliss in the halls of Mandos.