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QUENYA CORPUS WORDLIST
Quenya Elvish to English Wordlist
This word-list, covering about one fifth of the published total,
is intended as a help to interpreting actual Quenya texts occurring
in the corpus. It also lists at least a good many of the stray words
scattered around in HoME and the other books. This list normally does
not include words found only in the Etymologies, as
they can easily be traced using the
Index provided on this web-site. The
early "Qenya" material from LT1 and LT2 and the "Qenya Lexicon" is
also excluded, as are the "Qenya" poems in MC:213-221 (including the
earlier versions of the Markirya poem) and the untranslated
fragment of a poem in Carpenter's biography. Concerning proper names,
I have tried to include all the ones occurring in LotR and the
Silmarillion, and otherwise been selective (read: inconsistent).
The central texts
are denoted thus:
"Frodo's Greeting", the famous elen síla lúmenn'
omentielvo in LotR1:I ch. 3.
"Namárië", Galadriel's lament in LotR1:II ch. 8, starting
ai! laurië lantar lassi súrinen...
"Elendil's Oath", repeated by Aragorn at his coronation, given in
LotR3:VI ch. 5; starting Et Eärello Endorenna
"Círion's Oath" in UT:305, 317 (vanda sina termaruva
"the Markirya poem" in its final version, as published in
"SA" refers to the Silmarillion Appendix. A reference like
"SA:aglar" means that the Quenya word (in this case alcar,
alkar) is found under the entry aglar in this Appendix.
When the Quenya word is itself the head of the entry, the reference
is simply "SA". From this Appendix it is not always clear which words
are Quenya, which are primitive forms and which are Sindarin; in such
cases, the Quenya words are identified by means of other sources or
(with less certainty) by their style.In the case of
names occurring in the Silmarillion, no other reference than "Silm"
is given, since such names can easily be located by using the
excellent index provided by Christopher Tolkien.
The spelling is
for the most part regularized; the spelling used in the sources is
sometimes indicated, e.g. Carmë
("Karmë") "art" (UT:459). While I usually
regularize k to c, a few names occurring in the main
text of the Silmarillion (such as Ekkaia,
Melkor) are left alone.
vocative particle "O" in a vanimar "O beautiful ones"
(LotR3:VI ch. 6, translated in Letters:308)
á (2) imperative particle: a laita, laita te!
"[o] bless them, bless them!", á vala Manwë! "may
Manwë order it!", literally *"o rule Manwë!" (see
laita, vala for reference)
"and", a variant of ar occurring in Fíriel's
Song (that also has ar; a seems to be used before
words in f-, but it is not known whether this idea is valid in
a- a prefix
occurring in the Markirya poem (Tolkien first used na-,
then changed it). It is prefixed to verbal stems following a word
that is the object of sense-verbs like "see" and "hear" and describes
what the object is doing, as in man cenuva lumbor
ahosta[?] (changed from na-hosta), "who shall see
the clouds gather?" (hosta = "gather").
acúna ("akúna") see
also name of tengwa 11, earlier called harma (Appendix
"change", only attested in the past tense: ahyanë
interjection "Ah!", "Alas!" (Nam, RGEO:66)
terrible, dire" (PM:347; according to PM:363 seldom applied to
evil things), in Aicanáro ("Aika-") "Sharp
Flame, Fell Fire", masc. name; Sindarized as Aegnor. (So in
SA:nár and PM:345; MR:323 has
aimenel - see lirulin
"holy", derived from Ainu. Adopted and adapted from Valarin.
(WJ:399, FS, SA)
of the 'order' of the Valar and Maiar, made before Eä"; pl.
Ainur attested. Adopted and adapted from Valarin
(WJ:399). Ainulindalë "Music of the Ainur"
(SA:lin #2), the First History (WJ:406)
anybody, whoever" (WJ:372)
"holy", airetári or Airë Tári "holy
queen" (a title of Varda, PM:363), genitive aire-tário
"holy-queen's" (Nam, RGEO:67 - but according to PM:363,
airë is the noun "sanctity", while aira is the
"small bird" (SA:lin #1); Aiwendil "Lover of Birds"
"hail", as greeting (LotR2:IV ch. 9, see Letters:385 for
name of the Elves who started on the march from Cuiviénen but
did not reach Aman; = Úmanyar (MR:163)
(so spelt in CO, otherwise "alkar") "glory, brilliance,
splendour" (WJ:369, CO); alcarinqua adj. "glorious"
(WJ:412); noun Alcarinquë, "The Glorious", name of
a star/planet (SA:aglar - there spelt "Alkarinquë", but the
Silmarillion Index has "Alcarinquë". The celestial body in
question seems to be Jupiter, MR:435). Also Alcarin "the
Glorious", title taken by Atanatar II of Gondor, also name of one of
the Kings of Númenor (Appendix A)
(SA, Nam, RGEO:66, LR:41, SD:302), also name of tengwa 28
(Appendix E). Gen. pl. aldaron "of trees" in
Namárië. Etymology of alda, see
Letters:426. Place-name Aldalómë *"Tree-night" or
*"Tree-twilight" (LotR2:III ch. 4); masc. name Aldarion
masc. name, *"Son of (the) Trees", (Appendix A).
Aldaron a name of Oromë (Silm).
Aldúya fourth day of the Eldarin six-day week,
dedicated to the Trees (Appendix D). The word seems to include
*Aldu, a dual form referring to the Two Trees. The
Númenóreans altered the name to Aldëa
(presumably < *aldajâ), referring to one tree (the
White) only. The dual Aldu seems to occur also in
Aldudénië "Lament for the Two Trees" (a strange
form, since Quenya does not permit intervocalic d as in this
first abode of the Valar in Arda, apparently related to
almarë "blessedness" (Silm, LR:357)
"swan" (SA, UT:265); Alqualondë "Swanhaven"
Altáriel "Galadriel", "maiden crowned with a
radiant garland" (SA:kal; Alatáriel is
"blessed, free from evil". Adopted and adapted from Valarin.
(WJ:399) Place-name Aman the Blessed Realm, from the
stem mân- "good, blessed, unmarred"
(SA:mân). Adj. amanya "of Aman, *Amanian"
(WJ:411), nominal pl. Amanyar "those of Aman", Elves
dwelling there. Also fuller Amaneldi *"Aman-elves"
(WJ:373). Masc. name Amandil *"Aman-friend"
(Appendix A, SA:mân)
(fem. name; perhaps derived from mára "good")
amaurëa "dawn, early day" (poetic word)
*ambalotsë "uprising-flower", referring to
"the flower or floreate device used as a crest fixed to point of a
tall [illegible word: ?archaic] helmet". Strangely, the word
is asterisked as unattested (WJ:319)
"doom" (variant of umbar?) in Turambar
(SA:amarth); instrumental ambartanen "by doom" (Silm
ch. 21, UT:138). 2. (capitalized Ambar) "world".
Ambar-metta "the end of the world" (EO)
Ambaróna place-name; presumably a variant of
Ambarónë "uprising, sunrise, Orient" (LotR2:III
ch. 4; compare the Etymologies, entry
*"upwards-exalted", mother-name (never used in narrative) of
Pityafinwë = Amrod (PM:353, 354)
"top-russet", alternation of Umbarto, mother-name (never used
in narrative) of Telufinwë = Amras
"hill", allative pl. ambonnar "upon hills" in Markirya
(ruxal' ambonnar "upon crumbling hills")
amilessë "mothername" (amil "mother" +
essë "name"), name given to the child by its mother,
sometimes with prophetic implications (amilessi tercenyë
"mother-names of insight" (MR:217)
"heaving", a participle occurring in Markirya, derived from an
(otherwise unattested) verb *amorta- "heave" (literally
"up-rise, rise up", cf. orta-; the prefix am- means
"hook", also name of tengwa 14 (Appendix E)
(Nam, RGEO:66) - but an in the phrase es
sorni heruion an! "the Eagles of the Lords are at hand" (SD:290)
seems to denote motion towards (the speaker): the Eagles are
doom" in Rithil-Anamo, q.v.
(SA:nár; UT:22 cf. 51); anar "a sun"
(Markirya); Anarinya "my Sun" (FS). See also
Úr-anar. In Anárion *"Sun-son" and
Anardil *"Sun-friend", masc. names (Appendix A).
Anarya second day of the Eldarin six-day week, dedicated to
the Sun (Appendix D) Anarríma name of a
constellation: *"Sun-border"??? (Silm; cf. LR:383, stem
(Appendix E, SA - despite what Christopher Tolkien says in this
entry, the Quenya word anca as such does NOT
appear in the Sindarin dragon-name Ancalagon, but its Sindarin
cognate anc does. See ÁNAK in the Etymologies.)
Also name of tengwa 15 (Appendix E). Despite its English
gloss, anca is a singular word (in Etym the gloss is indeed
"jaw", not "jaws").
"most bright, brightest", sc. calima "bright" with a
superlative or intensive prefix (LotR2:IV ch. 9; see Letters:385
for translation). Fem. name Ancalimë fem. name,
*"Most Bright One", also masc. Ancalimon (Appendix
(as adjective) in Andafangar "Longbeards", one of the tribes
of the Dwarves (= Khuzdul Sigin-tarâg and Sindarin
Anfangrim) (PM:320); andavë "long", as
adverb. (LotR3:VI ch. 4, translated in Letters:308)
"gate", also name of tengwa 5 (Appendix E)
Andórë full form of Andor, "land
of gift", name of Númenor (SD:247)
andúnë "sunset, west, evening"
(Markirya, SA), also in Namárië:
Andúnë "West" (but the standard Quenya translation
of "west" is Númen) (Nam, RGEO:66) Cf.
andu- in Andúnië,
Andúnië (apparently a variant form of
andúnë) (place-name, a city and port on the
western coast of Númenor, said to mean "sunset"). (Appendix
A, Silm, UT:166)
Andúril "Flame of the West", sword-name
(LotR1:II ch. 3)
the "Westlands" of Númenor (UT:165)
"given (or added) name" (encompassing both epessi and
"iron", also name of tengwa 7 (Appendix E, SA, PM:347),
masc. name Angamaitë "Iron-handed" (Letters:347),
Angaráto "Iron-champion", Sindarin Angrod
(SA:ar(a) ). Place-name Angamando "Iron-gaol", Sindarin
Angband (MR:350) Cf. also Angainor the chain
with which Melkor was bound (Silm)
"gift", also name of tengwa 23 (Appendix E, SA); pl.
annar "gifts" in Fíriel's Song. Annatar
"Lord of Gifts, *Gift-lord", name assumed by Sauron when he tried to
seduce the Eldar in the Second Age (SA:tar)
"give". Several occurrences in FS: antalto "they
gave"; strangely, no past tense marker seems to be present (cf.
-lto for the ending); antar a pl. verb translated "they
gave", though in mature Quenya it would rather be the present tense
"give" (pl.); antaróta "he gave it"
(anta-ró-ta "gave-he-it"), another verb occurring in
Fíriel's Song, once again with no past tense marker.
Read something like *antanéros or
*antaneróta in mature Quenya? Also antáva
"will give", future tense of anta- "give"; read probably
*antuva in mature Quenya; similarly antaváro "he
will give" (LR:63) should rather be antuváro.
"mouth", also name of tengwa 13 (Appendix E)
archaic past tense of auta-, q.v. (WJ:365)
"after", only attested as a prefix in apacenyë and
Apanónar, q.v. Variant ep- in
apacenyë is translated "foresight" in MR:216;
yet the context and the form of the word itself clearly indicates
that it is actually the pl. form of an adjective *apacenya "of
foresight". The noun "foresight" is almost certainly *apacen;
cf. tercen "insight". (MR:216) The literal meaning of
*apacen is *"aftersight", sc. knowledge of that which comes
after. [Essi] apacenyë "[names] of foresight",
prophetic names given to a child by its mother (MR:216)
Apanónar "the After-born", an Elvish name of
Mortal Men as the Second-born of Ilúvatar (WJ:387)
"fully, completely, altogether, wholly" (WJ:392)
(SA, FS, Nam, RGEO:67, CO, LR:47, 56)
ar- a prefixed form of the stem Ara- "noble"
(PM:344). In Aracáno "high chieftain",
mothername (amilessë, q.v.) of Fingolfin (PM:360, cf.
344), Arafinwë "Finarfin" (MR:230)
"outside Aman", name of a region (SA:ar, mân)
"king"; pl. arani (WJ:369); gen.pl. aranion "of
kings" in asëa aranion, q.v.; aranya *"my king"
(aran + nya) (UT:193). Aran Meletyalda
"king your mighty" = "your majesty" (WJ:369). In
arandil "king's friend, royalist" (Letters:386);
Arantar masc. name, *"King-Lord" (Appendix A);
Arandor "Kingsland" (UT:165). Other compounds
ingaran, Noldóran, Núaran,
*"Kingly Person", masc. name (Silm)
*"Noble Adan", masc. name (Silm)
Supreme", the chief Valar, translation of the foreign word
Máhani adopted and adapted from Valarin
(WJ:402). Aratarya "her sublimity"; Varda
Aratarya "Varda the lofty, Varda in her sublimity"
aráto "champion, eminent man" (SA:ar(a)
masc. name (evidently derived from *arcirya "royal ship")
Realm", name of the Earth as the kingdom of Arda (Silm). It is
said that arda "meant any more or less bounded or defined
place, a region" (WJ:402 cf. 413), once translated "Earth"
(SD:246). Also name of tengwa 26 (Appendix E). Masc.
name Ardamírë "Jewel of the World"
árë "day" (PM:127) or "sunlight"
(SA:arien). Also name of tengwa 31. Originally pronounced
ázë; when /z/ merged with /r/, the letter became
superfluous and was given the new value ss, hence it was
re-named essë (Appendix E). Also
árë nuquerna *"árë reversed",
name of tengwa 32, similar to normal árë but
turned upside down (Appendix E)
Arfanyarassë a "variant or close equivalent" of
name, the Maia of the Sun (Silm); cf. árë
City of the Kings in Númenor (ar-menel-os(to)
Arnanórë, Arnanor "Arnor", Royal
Land (so arna = "royal"?) (Letters:428)
"exalted, lofty" (PM:354)
(Artahér-) "noble lord", masc. name (Sindarin
"Noble jewel", masc. name (Appendix A)
(Vanyarin athar) "fixed time, festival". Adopted and adapted
from Valarin. (WJ:399)
aranion "kingsfoil, athelas"; lit. "asëa [foil?] of
kings", see aran (LotR3:V ch. 8)
"month", only pl. astar attested (Appendix D)
"the Valiant", a title of Tulkas (Silm)
Atalantë "the Downfallen", name of the sunken
Númenor (Akallabêth, SD:247, 310; also LR:47).
Variant atalantië "Downfall", said to be a normal
noun-formation in Quenya (Letters:347). Also common noun
atalantë "collapse, downfall", from which noun is derived
the adjective atalantëa "ruinous, downfallen", pl.
atalantië in Markirya (changed to sg.
atalantëa - this change does not make sense, since the
adjective undoubtedly modifies a plural noun). Verb
ataltanë "down-fell, fell down" (LR:47, SD:247), past
tense of atalta- "collapse, fall in" (LR:390; cf.
talta, q.v); variant atalantë "down-fell" in
Atani "the Second Folk", an Elvish name of Mortal Men, the
Second-born of Ilúvatar. Cf. also Núnatani
(WJ:386). Atanamir masc.name, *"Edain-jewel"?
(Appendix A). Atanatar masc. name, "Father of Men"
(Appendix A), also common noun atanatar, pl.
Atanatári, "Fathers of Men", a title that "properly
belonged only to the leaders and chieftains of the peoples at the
time of their entry into Beleriand" (PM:324, SA:atar)
"father" (SA; WJ:402, UT:193); Atarinya "my father"
(LR:70). Diminutive Atarincë
("Atarinkë") "Little father", mother-name (never used in
narrative) of Curufinwë = Curufin (PM:353)
atendëa "double-middle", name of the two
enderi or middle-days that occurred in leap-years according to
the calendar of Imladris (Appendix D, first edition of
(Letters:427); Attalyar "Bipeds" (sg. *Attalya)
= Petty-dwarves (from Sindarin Tad-dail) (WJ:389)
"father", hypocoristic (LR:59, cf. the stem ATA in the
verbal prefix "off, *away", as in auciri ("aukiri")
"cut off" (so as to get rid of or lose a portion); contrast
hóciri (WJ:365, 368)
name of a Vala, adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:399);
Aulendur "Servant of Aulë", applied especially to those
persons, or families, among the Noldor who actually entered
Aulë's service and in return received instruction from him
"sunlight, day" (SA:ur), locative auressë "in
(the) morning" in Markirya
Aureldi) = Oarel, q.v. "Elf who departed from Beleriand
to Aman" (while the Sindar stayed there) (WJ:363)
away, leave" (leave the point of the speaker's thought); old "strong"
past tense anwë, usually replaced by
vánë, perfect avánië - but when
the meaning is purely physical "went away (to another place)", the
past tense oantë, perfect oantië was used.
Past participle vanwa "gone, lost, no longer to be had,
vanished, departed, dead, past and over" (WJ:365)
Vanyarin form (and original form) of Aureldi
avá (the latter stressed on the final syllable)
"Don't!"; ávan "I won't" (also ván,
ványë); áva carë!
("kare") "don't do it!" (WJ:371)
pa.t. avanë, not clearly glossed but apparently meaning
refuse or prohibit (WJ:370). Cf.
prefix indicating something forbidden: avaquétima "not
to be said, that must not be said", avanyárima "not to
be told or related" (WJ:370)
Avallónë Haven and city on Tol
Eressëa. In the Akallabêth the city is said to be
so named because it is "of all cities the nearest to Valinor", but
the etymology is not further explained. Cf. the Etymologies,
LR:370 stem LONO.
Elves that refused to go to Aman (= Avari) (WJ:370)
avánië, pl. avánier
perfect of auta-, q.v. (WJ:365)
"recusant, one who refuses to act as advised or commanded"; pl.
Avari Elves that refused to join in the westward march to Aman
name of the land between the southern Pelóri and the Sea,
where Ungoliant dwelt; said to be "not Elvish" in WJ:404 and must be
thought of as an adaption from Valarin; on the other hand, MR:284
states that it is "ancient Quenya" and offers the interpretation "The
Shadows". Whatever the case, it must have become *Avasar in
rule, commandment". Adopted and adapted from Valarin.
pl. axor in Markirya
ázë see árë
"lie", also present tense "lies". Sindanóriello caita
mornië "out of a grey land darkness lies". (Nam,
"shine", future tense caluva ("kaluva") "shall shine"
(UT:22 cf. 51)
"Light-cleft", Calacirya, the great ravine in the mountains of
Valinor, the passage leading from Valmar to the region where the
Teleri lived. Genitive Calaciryo in Namárië
("Kalakiryan") "the Cleft of Light", the pass in the
Pelóri, apparently a variant of Calacirya (WJ:403,
SA:kal-, kir-). Calaciryan, Calaciryandë, "the
region of Eldamar (Elvenhome) in and near the entrance to the
ravine, where the Light was brighter and the land more beautiful"
"Elves of the Light, Light-elves" (SA:kal-, SA:quen-/quet-,
cálë ("kále") "light"
masc.name, *"Bright Swordsman" (Appendix A)
masc. name, *"Bright Sword" (for *Calimamacil?) (Appendix
Tar-Calion, the Quenya name of Ar-Pharazôn "the Golden";
Calion would seem to be connected to cálë
"lamp", also name of tengwa 3 (Appendix E)
masc. name, *"Light-sword" or possibly (if haplology of
*Calmamacil) *"Lamp-sword" (Appendix A)
calmatéma "k-series" (Appendix
Canafinwë "strong-voiced or ?commanding
Finwë", masc. name; his Sindarin name was Maglor (see
Macalaurë). Short Quenya name Cáno.
("káno") "commander", usually as the title of a lesser
chief, especially one acting as the deputy of one higher in rank
(PM:345, SA:káno; PM:362 indicates that
cáno originially meant "crier,
herald"); "ruler, governor, chieftain" (UT:400)
Masc. name Cáno, see Canafinwë
"order" (give an order) or (with things as object) "demand"
(PM:361-362; only the stem KAN is there mentioned)
"announcement, order" (PM:362)
"fang" (SA:carak-), pl. carcar ("karkar") in
Markirya, there translated "rocks", evidently referring to
do", stem carë ("kare") in the phrase
áva carë "don't do it" (WJ:371);
carir "form", aorist pl. in the phrase i carir quettar
"those who form words" (WJ:391). Past participle carna,
q.v. Some doubtful forms in Fíriel's Song: past tense
cárë ("káre") "made"; the form
carnë (LR:362) is probably to be preferred in mature
Quenya. Also *cárië with various suffixes:
cárier ("kárier") is translated "they
made"; actually it seems to be an augmentless perfect *"they have
made", "they" being simply the plural ending -r. The literal
meaning of cárielto ("kárielto") must
also be *"they made" (cf. -lto).
("Karmë") "art" (UT:459)
*"built, made" in Vincarna "newly-made" (MR:408).
Carna would seem to be the past participle of car-.
"red" (SA:caran), not to be confused with the past tense of
("Karnil") name of a star (or planet), identified with Mars
Carnimírië "Red-jewelled", the
rowan-tree in Quickbeam's song (LotR2:III ch. 4, SA:caran),
also translated "with adornment of red jewels" (Letters:224; where
the reading "carnemírie" occurs)
"red-face", masc. name, mother-name (never used in narrative) of
Morifinwë = Caranthir (PM:353)
("Kasar") "Dwarf", pl. Casari or Casári,
partitive plural Casalli. Adapted from Dwarvish
Khazâd. Casarrondo "Khazad-dûm" (WJ:388,
masc. name, "casta[?]-jewel" (Appendix A)
"stream", locative pl. celumessen ("kelumessen") in
Markirya (ëar-celumessen is translated "in the
flowing sea", lit. *"in the sea-streams").
masc. name, *"Earth-servant" (Appendix A)
("ken-") "see, behold", future tense cenuva ("kenuva")
"shall see" in Markirya. Also cen = noun "sight" as the
final element of some nouns (*apacen, tercen, q.v.)
"communication, *enquiry, *essay"; Ósanwë-centa
"Communication of Thought", an appendix to Pengolodh's Lammas
or "Account of Tongues" (MR:415); cf. also essecenta,
seventh month of the year, "July" (Appendix D)
"rune" (pl. certar given), adapted from Sindarin certh
(an inherited Quenya form of primitive *kirtê would have
been *cirtë). (WJ:396)
"choosing" (isolated from Essecilmë "name-choosing",
q.v.) (MR:214); also in cilmessi ("kilmessi")
"self-names", literally names of personal choise (PM:339)
(cilmë + essi, hence *"choice-names")
"chasm", allative cilyanna ("kilyanna") "in-Chasm" (sc.
"into [the] chasm") (LR:47, 56). In MR:471, cilya is
defined as "cleft, gorge".
("kíra") "sail", verb (apparently the continuative stem of
("kírinki"), sg. *cirincë, a species of
birds, "no bigger than wrens, but all scarlet, with piping voices on
the edge of human hearing" (UT:169). Seems to incorporate the
diminutive ending -incë.
"(sharp-prowed) ship" (SA:kir-, where the word is misspelt
círya with a long
í; Christopher Tolkien probably confused
it with the first element of the Sindarin name
Círdan. It seems that
Círyon, the name of Isildur's son, is
likewise misspelt; read Ciryon as in the index
and the main text of the Silmarillion.) Also in Markirya.
In the Plotz letter, cirya is inflected for all cases except
plural possessive. Compounded in ciryaquen "shipman, sailor"
(WJ:372). Masc. names Ciryaher *"Ship-lord"
(Appendix A), Ciryandil *"Ship-friend" (Appendix
A), Ciryatan *"Ship-builder" (Appendix A);
Tar-Ciryatan, name of a Númenórean king, "King
"mariner", nominative and genitive identical since the noun ends in
-o already: Indis i-Ciryamo "the Mariner's Wife"
("köa") "house"; coarya "his house"
(WJ:369); coacalina "light of the house" (a
metaphor for the soul [fëa] dwelling inside
the body [hroa]) (MR:250)
"life-bread" = Sindarin lembas (SA:cuivië,
PM:395); coimas Eldaron "the coimas of the Eldar"
"stirring", in the calendar of Imladris a precisely defined period of
54 days (Appendix D), but translated "the first day of Spring"
in the Silmarillion Appendix (SA:cuivië)
"living", coirëa quenya "living speech"
"bearer", in cormacolindor (q.v.)
"borne, worn" (past participle of col- "bear"); also used as a
noun = "vestment, cloak" (MR:385). Variant form collo
"cloak" (SA:thin(d) ) in the name Sindicollo (q.v.),
sc. colla with a masculine ending.
"sun-round", solar year (Appendix D; pl.
coranári in PM:126)
"ring" in cormacolindo "Ring-bearer", pl. cormacolindor
(LotR3:VI ch. 4, translated in Letters:308);
Cormarë "Ringday", a festival held on
Yavannië 30 in honour of Frodo (Appendix D)
Corollairë ("Korollairë") see
"mound" (SA); Coron Oiolairë ("Koron"), the
"Mound of Eversummer" where the Two Trees grew. Also contracted
"awakening". In Cuiviénen, "Waters of Awakening"
kind of tree (SA:mal-)
Culúrien another name of Laurelin;
apparently derived from the stem KUL- "golden-red" (Silm;
("kúna") 1) adjective "bent, curved", from which is
derived 2) the verb cúna- "bend", occurring with
a- prefix (originally na-prefix) in Markirya.
Here cúna- is intransitive; we do not know whether it
can also be transitive "bend".
"skill" in Curufin, Curufinwë, Curunir. (SA)
Curufinwë (so spelt in Silm;
"Kurufinwë" in PM) *"Skillful Finwë", a name of
Fëanor (PM:343); also the origin of the Sindarin name
Curufin; Fëanor named his favourite son after himself.
Short Quenya name Curvo. (PM:352)
*"Cunning One", "Saruman" (UT:401)
("Kurwë") "technical skill and invention" (PM:360 cf.
unidentified word in the sentence e man antaváro?
(LR:63), "what will he give indeed?" It may be an adverbial particle
"indeed"; on the other hand, one very early "Qenya" text may suggest
that it is the pronoun "he", though "he" is also expressed as the
ending -ro: *"He - what will he give?"
("eä") "is", in a more absolute sense (*"exists") than
the copula ná (CO); Eä "it is" or
"let it be", used as a noun for "All Creation", the universe
(WJ:402; Letters:284, footnote)
"being, spirit" (pl. ëalar is attested), spirits whose
natural state it is to exist without a physical body, like Balrogs
"sea" (WJ:413; see Letters:386 for etymology), pl.
ëari "seas" (FS, LR:47); Eär "the
Great Sea", ablative Eärello "from the Great Sea", et
Eärello "out of the Great Sea" (EO). In names like
Eärendil "Sea-friend", Eärrámë
"Sea-wing" (SA), Eärendur masc. name,
*"Sea-servant"; in effect a variant of Eärendil
(Appendix A). Used ="(professional) mariner" (Letters:386)
Fem. name Eärwen "Sea-maiden" (Silm)
masc. name, contraction of Eärendil (Appendix
masc.name, contraction of Eärendur (Appendix
("eket") "short broad-bladed sword" (UT:284)
"issue of water, spring" (SA:kel-)
of the outer ocean: for *et-gaya? (Silm)
pl. éli "star" (poetic word) (WJ:362)
"behold!" (directing sight to an actually visible object)
adj. "of the stars", 2. noun (Elda) = one of the people of the
Stars, high-elf (SA:êl, elen), chiefly in the pl
Eldar (WJ:362). Gen. pl. Eldaron (WJ:368,
PM:395, 402); dative pl. eldain "for elves",
for Eldar (FS); possessive sg. Eldava "Elf's"
(WJ:407); possessive pl. Eldaiva (WJ:368),
Eldaivë governing a plural word (WJ:369). The word
Eldar properly refers to the non-Avari Elves only. Compounds:
Eldalië "the Elven-folk" (often used vaguely to mean all
the race of Elves, though it properly did not include the Avari)
(WJ:374; possessive Eldaliéva in the
name Mindon Eldaliéva, q.v.),
Elda-lambë "the language of the Eldar" (WJ:368),
Eldamar "Elvenhome", according to MR:176 another name of
Tirion (see tir-). Eldameldor "Elf-lovers"
(WJ:412); Eldandil (pl. Eldandili in WJ:412)
"Elf-friend" (by the Edain confused with Elendil, properly
"Star-friend") (WJ:410); Eldanor "Elvenland", regions
of Valinor where the Elves dwelt and the stars could be seen
masc. name, *"Elf-head"??? (Appendix A)
adjective derived from Elda (Silm)
archaic variant of Elda, properly one of the "Marchers" from
Cuiviénen, but the word went out of use (WJ:362,
Elemmírë *"Star-jewel" (elen +
míre, note assimilation nm > mm), name
of a star/planet (possibly Mercury, MR:435, where the spelling is
Elemmirë); also name of an Elf. (SA:mîr)
(SA:êl, elen); pl. eleni (occasionally in verse:
eldi) (WJ:362); gen. pl. elenion in the phrase
Elenion Ancalima "brightest of stars" (LotR2:IV ch. 9; see
Letters:385 for translation); allative elenna "starwards"
used as name of Númenor (Silm; see
Elenna); ablative pl. elenillor "from stars" in
Markirya. Adj. elenya *"stellar" (only defined
as an adjective referring to stars by Tolkien) (WJ:362)
"of the stars" (SA:êl, elen)
regions of Valinor where the Elves dwelt and the stars could be seen
masc. name "Star-friend", "Lover or student of stars", applied
to those devoted to astronomical lore. However, when the Edain used
this name they intended it to mean "Elf-friend", confusing
elen "star" and elda "elf" (WJ:410). (This idea
that the name was misapplied seems to be late; Tolken earlier
interpreted the name as an ancient compound Eled +
ndil; see Letters:386.) Allative Elendilenna "to
Elendil" (PM:401); Elendil Vorondo genitive of
Elendil Voronda "Elendil the Steadfast" (CO) Pl.
Elendili the Númenórean Elf-friends
masc. name, *"Star-servant", probably intended to mean
*"Elf-servant"; in effect a variant of Elendil (Appendix
"Starwards", a name of Númenor: Elenna-nórë
*"Starwards-land", "the land named Starwards", genitive
Elenna-nórëo in Cirion's Oath
Elentári "Star-queen", title of Varda
*"Star-person", masc. name (Silm)
*"stellar" (only defined as an adjective referring to stars by
Tolkien) (WJ:362). Elenya, name of the first day of the
Eldarin six-day week, dedicated to the stars (Appendix D).
Elerossë masc. name, "star foam", starlit
foam, Sindarin Elros (PM:348)
Elerrína "Crowned with Stars" (elen +
rína), a name of Taniquetil (Silm)
"Elf-stone" (Elen + sar, actually *"Star-stone", cf.
Elendil concerning elen "star" being used to mean
"Elf") (LotR3:V ch. 8)
Ellairë alternative name of June, evidently
incorporating lairë "summer" (PM:135)
"starlike, like stars", pl. elvië in Markirya
masc. name, *"Star-person" (PM:340, WJ:369)
"even thou", emphatic 2. person sg. pronoun (Nam, RGEO:67)
unidentified word occurring twice in Fíriel's Song;
according to the most plausible theory it is an adverbial particle
denoting that the action of the following verb took place a long time
"re-, again-", in enquantuva "shall refill", entuluva,
"shall come again", Envinyatar "Renewer", envinyanta
"healed, *renewed", enyalië "to recall" (Nam, RGEO:67,
LotR3:V ch. 8, MR:405, UT:317)
"middle" in atendëa, q.v.
"middle-days", (sg. *enderë) in the calendar of Imladris
three days inserted between the months (or seasons)
yávië and quellë (Appendix
alternative name of "autumn" (PM:135)
"Middle-earth" (SA:dôr), also long fom
Endórë "Middle-earth" (Appendix E);
allative Endorenna "to Middle-earth" in EO.
(= except) (FS)
"sickly"; nominal pl. Engwar "the Sickly", Elvish name of
Mortal Men (Silm)
"shall refill" (Nam); see en-, quat-
Eldarin six-day week, pl. enquier (Appendix D)
"healed" (MR:405), pointing to a verbal stem
*envinyata- "heal", litereally "renew"; cf. Aragorn's title
Envinyatar "the Renewer" (LotR3:V ch. 8)
enyalië "to recall", "to commemorate"; dative
enyalien "for the re-calling", "[in order] to recall" in
enyárë "in that day" (pointing to the
Eönwë name of a Maia, evidently adopted
and adapted from Valarin (WJ:417)
"after-name", nickname, mostly given as a title of admiration or
honour (PM:339, UT:266)
"say/says" or "said" (a tenseless pseudo-verb used to introduce
quotations or a "that"-construction); with affixes equen "said
I", eques "said he/she" (WJ:392, 415)
equessi "a saying, dictum, a quotation from someone's uttered
words, a current or proverbial dictum" (WJ:392); I Equessi
Rúmilo "the Sayings of Rúmil" (WJ:398)
Ercoirë alternative name of February
"singularity", the person as a whole (MR:216)
Eressëa "lonely", often used by itself for
Tol Eressëa, the Lonely Isle (Silm)
"physical matter" (MR:338, 470)
Erquellë alternative name of September
Errívë alternative name of November
Ertuilë alternative name of April
One", God, a name reserved for the most solemn occasions
(WJ:402), genitive Eruo (MR:329). Compounds:
Eruhantalë "Thanksgiving to Eru", a
Númenórean festival (UT:166, 436), Eruhin
pl. Eruhíni "Children of Eru", Elves and Men
(WJ:403; SA:híni), Erukyermë "Prayer to
Eru", a Númenórean festival (UT:166, 436),
Erulaitalë "Praise of Eru", a Númenórean
festival (UT:166, 436), Erusén "the children of
God" (RGEO:74; this is a weird form with no plural ending. The
normal form seems to be Eruhíni.)
unidentified word in the phrase es sorni heruion an! "the
Eagles of the Lords are at hand" (SD:290); possibly an assimilated
form of en, that may function as a kind of deitic particle
here: *"Behold the Eagles..."
"name", also later name of tengwa 31, originally called
árë (ázë). (Appendix E).
Pl. essi in PM:339 and MR:470. Essecarmë
"name-making" (MR:214, 470), Eldarin ceremony where the father
announces the name of his child. Essecenta (-"kenta")
*"Name-essay" (see centa) (MR:415) Essecilmë
"name-choosing", an Eldarin ceremony where a child named him- or
herself according to personal lámatyávë
(q.v.) (MR:214, 471)
"Repose" (WJ:403), only used as name of a Valië
"trust, hope" (WJ:318, MR:320)
et "out" (+
ablative: "out of"); ettuler *"are coming forth"
(ettul- = et + tul-). (SD:290; read probably
*ettulir or continuative
*ettúlar in mature Quenya)
("Etyañgoldi") "Exiled Noldor" (WJ:374). Sg.
probably *Etyangol (*Etyangold-).
ezella "green" (in Vanyarin Quenya only). Adopted and adapted
from Valarin. (WJ:399)
"the Green Mound" where the Two Trees grew; adopted and adapted from
Valarin; also translated as Coron Oiolairë,
"fair-minded, just, generous" (PM:352)
(pl. fairi in Markirya) "phantom, disembodied spirit,
when seen as a pale shape"; also used = "spirit (in general)"
falassë "shore, line of surf"
"to foam", participle falastala "foaming, surging" in
masc. name, *"Shore-lord" (Appendix A)
"(crested/foaming) wave"; partitive pl. allative falmalinnar
"on the foaming waves" in Namárië (Nam,
RGEO:67). In Falmari, a name of the Teleri, and
Mar-nu-Falmar, "Home/Land under Waves", a name of
Númenor after the Downfall. (SA:falas) Falmari
"wave-folk", a name of the Teleri (PM:386)
"veils" or "raiment" in which the Valar presented themselves
to physical eyes, the bodies in which they were self-incarnated,
usually in the shape of the bodies of Elves (and Men)
fána, fánë "white"
"(white) cloud" (FS); pl. fanyar in
Namárië (Nam, RGEO:67)
fanyarë "the skies" (not heaven or firmament -
the upper airs and clouds). Note that despite its English gloss,
fanyarë is a singular word and therefore takes a singular
adjective/participle, as in fanyarë rúcina "ruined
skies" in Markirya (see MC:220, note 8 for this
ufárëa "not enough" (FS)
"dwelling", in orofarnë
Fayanáro archaic form of
"spirit" (pl. fëar attested, MR:363). The Incarnates are
said to live by necessary union of hroa (body) and
fëa (WJ:405). In Fëanor
(Quenya-Sindarin hybrid for pure Quenya Fëanáro
"Spirit of Fire"), Fëantúri "Masters of Spirits",
name of Mandos and Lórien (SA)
Fëanáro "Spirit of Fire", Fëanor
Fëanturi "Masters of Spirits", name of the two
Valar Mandos and Lórien (SA:tur)
fifíru- is evidently the frequentative (see
sisíla-) form of fir-; according to MC:223 it
means "slowly fade away"; participle fifírula in
Markirya (translated "fading")
"having hair, -haired" (PM:340)
Findaráto *"Hair-champion", Sindarized as
Finrod (SA:ar(a) )
"hair" (especially of the head) (PM:340), "a tress or plait of
*"Hair-commander"; Sindarized as Fingon (PM:344)
findessë "a head of hair, a person's hair as a
"a hair" (PM:340)
masc. name, apparently displaying the frequent ending -wë
suffixed to a stem normally having to do with hair, but the name is
obscure (see Tolkien's discussion in PM:340-341)
fade"; cf. fifíru-; fírë "expire";
augmentless perfect fírië, translated "she has
breathed forth" (but no explicit element meaning "she" seems
to be present) (MR:250, 470)
Fíriel "She that sighed" or "She that died",
later name of Míriel (MR:250)
Fírima pl. Fírimar "those apt
to die", "mortals", an Elvish name of Mortal Men (WJ:387)
fírimoin "for men", a dative pl. of
Fírimor, "mortals, Men", occurring in
Fíriel's Song. Tolkien later changed
Fírimor to Fírimar, so the dative would
probably be *fírimain in mature Quenya.
Firyar "Mortals", an Elvish name of Mortal Men
"north" (SA:men), also name of tengwa 10 (Appendix E).
In Formenos "Northern Fortress" (SA:formen)
the "Northlands" of Númenor (UT:165)
(misprint "Fuinar" in the Silmarillion Index) masc. name,
evidently derived from fuinë "shadow" (Silm; cf. the
stem PHUY in the Etymologies)
hácala ("hákala") "yawning", a
participle occurring in the Markirya poem, derived from an
(otherwise unattested) verb *háca- "yawn".
"tall" (Appendix E, footnote)
hantalë "thanksgiving", isolated from
hára- "sit", pl. hárar in Cirion's
Oath (i hárar "those who sit, those who are
haranyë last year of a century in the
Númenórean calendar (Appendix D)
"treasure", also name of tengwa 11, later called aha
("heka!") "be gone! stand aside!", also with pronominal
suffixes hecat sg. and hecal pl. (WJ:364)
("Hekel") (pl. Heceldi, WJ:371) = hecil, but
reformed to match Oarel, especially applied to the Eldar left
in Beleriand. Helcelmar and Heceldamar *"Land of
Forsaken Elves", the name used by the loremasters of Aman for
("hekil") (masc. hecilo, fem. hecilë) "one
lost or forsaken by friends, waif, outcast, outlaw"
(pa.t. hehtanë) "put aside, leave out, exclude, abandon,
("helka") "icy, icecold". In Helcar, the Inland Sea in
the north-east of Middle-earth, and Helcaraxë, the
Grinding Ice between Araman and Middle-earth (SA)
"leaving aside, not counting, excluding, except" (WJ:365)
"order"; Heren Istarion "Order of Wizards" (UT:388)
*"Fortune-friend" = Eadwine, Audoin (LR:52, 56, cf.
the Etymologies, stem KHER-)
(hér-) "lord" (PM:210); Letters:283 gives
hér (heru). In names like Herumor *"Black
Lord" and Herunúmen "Lord of the West"
(SA:heru); heruion evidently a gen.pl. of heru
"lord": *"of the lords" (SD:290); herunúmen
"Lord-of-West" (LR:47), title of Manwë
*"little lady" (UT:195). Concerning the diminutive ending, cf.
Followers", an Elvish name of Mortal Men as the Second-born of
Ilúvatar (WJ:387); hildin "for men"
(Hildor, the Followers), a dative pl. occurring in
Fíriel's Song. Cf. hildinyar "my heirs",
evidently *hildë, hildo "follower, heir" +
-inya "my" + -r plural ending (EO)
Hildórien the land where Men first awoke, like the
Elves did at Cuiviénen (Silm)
"child", also hina used in the vocative to a (young) child
(also hinya "my child" for hinanya) (WJ:403).
Pl. híni (surprisingly not **hínar) in
Híni Ilúvataro "Children of Ilúvatar"
(Silmarillion Index). In compounds -hin pl.
-híni (as in Eruhíni, "Children of Eru",
"find", future tense hiruva in Namárië
(hiruvalyë "thou shalt find") (Nam, RGEO:67);
Hirilondë "Haven-finder", name of a ship
hísië "mist" (Nam,
Hísimë eleventh month of the year,
"November" (Appendix D, SA:hîth)
"blow; fly or stream in the wind", participle hlápula
"blowing" in Markirya
"hear", future tense hlaruva "shall hear" in
hlókë "snake, serpent", later
"sounds" (sg. *hlonë?) (WJ:394)
tengwi "phonetic signs" (so *hlonítë =
verbal prefix; "away, from, from among", the point of view being
outside the thing, place, or group in thought (WJ:368)
hóciri "cut off" (cut of a required portion,
so as to have it or use it) (WJ:365, 368)
"heart of the house", a fire (LR:63, 73; this is "Qenya" with
genitive in -en, not -o as
in mature Quenya)
"my heart", changed to indo-ninya (FS, earlier
"gather, collect, assemble" (Markirya);
hostainiéva "will be gathered", future tense of the
stative verb *hostainië, derived from *hostaina
"gathered", past participle of hosta- "gather". Such stative
verbs are probably not valid in mature Quenya; see -ië.
"the Wild" (sg. *hravan), name of non-Edain Men
hrávë "flesh" (MR:349)
"shore, beach", ablative hrestallo *"from (the) shore" in
hrívë "winter", in the calendar of
Imladris a precisely defined period of 72 days, but also used without
any exact definition (Appendix D)
(sometimes "hröa") "body" (changed by Tolkien from
hrondo, in turn changed from hrón). Pl.
hroar is attested (MR:304). In MR:330, Tolkien notes
that hroa is "roughly but not exactly equivalent to 'body' "
(as opposed to "soul"). The Incarnates live by necessary union
of hroa (body) and fëa (soul) (WJ:405).
hróta "dwelling underground, artificial cave
or rockhewn hall" (PM:365)
"gloom, darkness" (SA:fuin), also used for "shadow" = Sauron
(LR:56). With prefix nu- "under" and allative
ending -nna in nuhuinenna (SD:246); also
unuhuinë "under-shadow" (LR:47).
"breeze", also name of tengwa 12 (Appendix E); hwesta
sindarinwa "Grey-elven hw", name of tengwa 34 (Appendix
Hyarmen "south" (SA, SA:men), also name of tengwa 33
(Appendix E). In Hyarmendacil masc.name, "South-victor"
(Appendix A), apparently also in Hyarmentir (name of a
mountain; the element -tir means "watch[ing point]".) (SA)
Hyarnustar "the Southwestlands" of Númenor;
Hyarrostar the "Southeastlands" (UT:165)
hyóla "trump" (SD:419)top
indeclinable definite article (Nam, RGEO:67,
Markirya, WJ:369, WJ:398; directly prefixed
i- in i-mar [FS] and
i-Ciryamo [UT:8], with no hyphen in
icilyanna = i cilyanna in
SD:247). Also relative pronoun: i "the one/they who" (both
article and relative pronoun in Cirion's Oath: i Eru i or
ilyë mahalmar ëa: the One who is above
all thrones", i hárar "they who are sitting").
Before a verb, i means "the one(s) who, the one who, those
who": i carir quettar ómainen "those who form words
with voices" (WJ:391).
(1) infinitive (or gerundial) ending, attested in
enyalië, q.v. (CO)
(2) "is", -ier "are", stative verb suffix occurring in
Fíriel's Song: númessier "they are in the
west", meldielto "they are...beloved", talantië
"he is fallen", márië "it is good" (<
*númessë "in the west", melda "beloved",
*talanta "fallen"); future tense -iéva in
hostainiéva "will be gathered" (< *hostaina
"gathered"). Compare ye "is", yéva "will be",
verbs that also occur in Fíriel's Song. This suffix is
probably not valid in mature Quenya: -ië is an
infinitival or gerundial ending in Cirion's Oath, for
ye "is" we here find ná, and the phrase "lost
is" is vanwa ná, not *vanwië.
"gleam (white)", participle ilcala with pl. allative ending
ilcalannar ("ilkalannar") in Markirya (axor
ilcalannar "on bones gleaming")
of one of the Lamps of the Valar; apparently incorporating the
element luin "blue" (Silm)
appearing in Ilmen, the region above the air where the stars
are, Ilmarë, name of a Maia, and Ilmarin "mansion
of the high airs", the dwelling of Manwë and Varda upon
("ilqa") "all" (FS)
("ilqainen") a word occurring in Fíriel's Song,
translated "to all". It would appear to be ilqua "all" with a
dative pl. ending, but in mature Quenya -inen is the ending
for instrumental pl. (FS)
world" (FS, LR:47, 56)
Ilúvatar "All-father", God (FS);
Ilúvatáren "of Ilúvatar"; in the "Qenya"
of Fíriel's Song, LR:47 and SD:246, the
genitive ending is -en instead of -o as in mature
Quenya. Contrast the genitive Ilúvataro in the phrase
Híni Ilúvataro "Children of Ilúvatar" in
the Silmarillion Index.
ilúvë "allness, the all". In
Ilúvatar "All-father". (SA; WJ:402, MR:471)
(LR:47, 56; SD:310), ilyë before a plural noun,
"all" being inflected like an adjective (Nam, RGEO:67):
ilyë tier "all paths" (Namárië),
ilyë mahalmar "all thrones" (Cirion's Oath)
adjectival suffix. Sometimes it is used to derive simple adjectives,
like vanima "fair" or calima "bright"; it can also take
on the meaning "-able", as in úquétima
"unspeakable" (from quet- "speak"; note that the stem-vowel is
lengthened in the derivatives where -ima means "-able").
"X-ima" may mean "apt to X", as in Fírimar "mortals",
literally "those apt to die" (WJ:387)
Habitation, = Earth," also "the principal part of Arda" (= the Solar
System) (MR:337, also WJ:419 note 29)
"between" (Nam, RGEO:67)
a word occurring in Fíriel's Song, translated "in them"
(ar ilqua ímen "and all [that is] in them"). Probably
not valid in mature Quenya.
strange particle occurring in the phrase i-coimas in-Eldaron
"the coimas [lembas] of the Eldar" in PM:403. It looks like the
Sindarin plural article, but in Quenya i is both sg. and pl.
"the", and the word Eldar does not normally take any article
at all. The alternative reading i-coimas Eldaron (PM:395) is
probably to be preferred.
pl. ending, seen in eldain, fírimoin, q.v.
"lily", or other large single flower. Adopted and adapted from
"heart"; indo-ninya a word occurring in
Fíriel's Song, translated "my heart". Read
*indonya in mature Quenya?
instrumental pl. ending. In ómainen (WJ:391)
highest point" (PM:340)
"Science/Philosophy" as a whole (PM:360; WJ:383 has
ingolë ["iñgole"] "lore")
ingólemo "one with very great knowledge, a
'wizard' ", applied only to great sages of the Eldar in Valinor, like
"summit of a mountain" (PM:340)
masc. name, "chief". (PM:340). Pl. Ingwer "Chieftains",
what the Vanyar called themselves. Ingwë Ingweron "chief
of the chieftains", proper title of Ingwë as high king
adjectival ending, seen in alcarinqua "glorious"
(WJ:412) from alcar "glory". Etymologically,
-inqua means "-full", like "glory-full" in this case.
"mind-mood" (changed by Tolkien from inwaldi) (MR:216,
genitive pl. ending in elenion, Istarion,
írë "when" (relative, not
írima "lovely, beautiful", also pl.
írimar; in the "Qenya" of Fíriel's Song,
adjectives in -a form their plurals in -ar instead of
-ë as in mature Quenya.
Írissë fem. name (PM:345)
"Desirer", name of a Vala; normally called Lórien,
properly the place where he dwells (WJ:402)
(FS; SA:sil, Appendix E, SD:302); Isildur (masc.name.,
*"Moon-servant") (SA:sil, Appendix A); isilmë
"moonlight", occurring in Markirya; free translation "the
moon" in MC:215 (isilmë ilcalassë, lit. "moonlight
gleaming-in" = "in the moon gleaming"); Isilya third day of
the Eldarin six-day week, dedicated to the Moon (Appendix
a feminine ending, as in Írissë
Istari "Wizard"; Heren Istarion "Order of Wizards"
"sparkle" (SA:ril, PM:363)
"a flash" (PM:363)
Itarillë, Itarildë fem. name, Sindarized as
Idril (PM:346, 348; SA:ril)
(-ivë) plural possessive ending in Eldaiva,
*kelva) "animals, living things that move" (Silm)
"earth", referring to the earth as a flat floor beneath menel,
the heavens (SA). Kementári "Earth-queen", title
of Yavanna. (SA:tar)
*"prayer", isolated from Erukyermë (UT:166)top
pronominal affix of the 2. person, "you" (pl.). See heca!
"green" (but all other sources give laiqua)
"Green-elves", not much used (translated from Sindarin Laegil,
Laegelrim) (WJ:385, SA:quen-/quet-)
"summer" (Letters:283), in the calendar of Imladris a
precisely defined period of 72 days, but also used without any exact
definition (Appendix D) Oiolairë "Eversummer"; see
Coron Oiolairë. Lairelossë *"Summer-snow",
name of a tree (UT:167), perhaps with white flowers.
"bless, praise": a laita, laita te! Andavë laituvalmet! ...
Cormacolindor, a laita tárienna "bless them, bless them!
Long shall we bless them! ... [The] Ring-bearers, praise [them] to
[the] height!" (lait[a]-uva-lme-t
"bless-shall-we-them) (LotR3:VI ch. 4, translated in
Letters:308) Verbal noun laitalë "praising", isolated
from Erulaitalë (UT:166, 436)
"laugh" (PM:359 - does this obsolete lala-
"deny" in the Etymologies, stem
Lalwendë (also short Lalwen) "Laughing
Maiden", fem. name (PM:343)
lamni or lamani) "animal" (usually applied to
four-footed beasts, and never to reptiles and birds)
lámatyáver attested) "sound-taste"
(láma + tyávë), individual pleasure
in the sounds and forms of words (MR:215, 471)
"tongue" (physical tongue, while lambë = "language")
"tongue, language" (the usual word for 'language' in non-technical
use) (WJ:368, 394), also name of tengwa 27 (Appendix
E); Lambë Valarinwa "Valarin tongue" (WJ:397);
Lambengolmor "Loremasters of Tongues", a school founded by
"fall", lantar present tense pl. (Nam, RGEO:66);
lantaner "fell" (pl.) (SD:246); lantier "they
fell", a plural past tense of lanta- "fall" occurring in
LR:47; read lantaner in mature Quenya, as in SD:246. Also sg.
lantië "fell" (LR:56); read *lantanë?
Participle lantala "falling" (with locative ending:
lantalassë) in Markirya. Noun lantë
"fall" in Noldolantë, q.v.
"league", a linear measure, 5000 rangar (q.v.). A ranga
was approximately 38 inches, so a lár was "5277
yards, two feet and four inches [ca. 4826 m], supposing the
equivalence to be exact" - close enough to our league of 5280 yards
to justify this translation. The basic meaning of lár
is "pause"; in marches a brief halt was made for each league.
"leaf", pl. lassi (Nam, RGEO:66,
Letters:283); gen. lassëo "of a leaf", gen. pl.
lassion "of leaves" (earlier lassio) (WJ:407);
lasselanta, lasse-lanta "leaf-fall", used (as was
quellë) for the latter part of autumn and the beginning
of winter (Appendix D, Letters:428); hence Lasselanta
alternative name of October (PM:135). Cf. also
lassemista "leaf-grey" (LotR2:III ch. 4, translated in
Letters:224), lassewinta a variant of lasselanta
(PM:376). See also lillassëa.
"gold", but of golden light and colour, not of the metal. In
Laurelin, name of the Golden Tree of Valinor. (SA,
Letters:308), Laurenandë "Gold-valley" =
Lórien (UT:253) and laurinquë name of a
tree, possibly "Gold-full one" (UT:168). Derived adjective
laurëa "golden, like gold", pl. laurië
Laurelindórinan "Valley of Singing Gold", an
earlier name of Laurenandë (Lórien)
(UT:253); laurelindórenan lindelorendor
malinornélion ornemalin *"Goldenlight-music-land-valley
music-dream-land of yellow-trees tree-yellow", Quenya elements
agglutinated in Entish fashion; this supposedly means something like
"the valley where the trees in a golden light sing musically, a land
of music and dreams; there are yellow trees there, it is a
tree-yellow land" (LotR2:III ch. 4, translated in
"lick", pa.t. lávë in undulávë,
see undu (Nam)
(changed from lavarin) some kind of tree (alda)
(sg.), possessive suffix attested only in the phrase Arwen
vanimalda "Arwen your beauty", sc. "O beautiful Arwen", and in
meletyalda "your majesty" (WJ:369) Arwen
vanimalda was changed to Arwen vanimelda in the second
edition of LotR, so Tolkien may have decided to re-interpret the
phrase as *"Arwen, beautiful Elf (Elda)". The ending for "your"
appear as -lya elsewhere; -lda may be used in vocatives
only. (LotR1:II ch. 6)
proceed (in any direction), travel", pa.t. lendë
"left, went" (pa.t. of lelya- "go") (FS, LR:47, SD:310,
lenémë "with leave" (+ gen: "with leave
the leader of the Nandor (Nandorin Denweg, primitive
"in measure", a word occurring in Fíriel's Song,
apparently the instrumental form of a noun *lesta "measure",
not otherwise attested.
Lestanórë "Doriath", gen.
"snake" (Appendix E)
partitive pl. ending; genitive -lion in
vanimálion, allative -linnar in
("líko") "wax" (Markirya comments, MC:223)
lícuma ("líkuma") "taper,
"people" in Eldalië (q.v.); possessive
liéva in Mindon Eldaliéva (q.v.)
lillassëa "having many leaves", pl.
lillassië in Markirya (ve tauri
lillassië, lit. *"like many-leaved forests", is translated
"like leaves of forests" in MC:215)
lind- "a musical sound" (Letters:308)
"Singers", what the Teleri called themselves (WJ:380, MR:349,
"singing, song" (SA:gond); lindelorendor
"music-dream-land"; see laurelindórenan
lindelorendor... (LotR2:III ch. 4, cf. Letters:308)
the Green-elves called themselves; also used in Exilic Quenya
Lindónë "Lindon", place-name (WJ:385)
Lindórië fem. name, perhaps *"She that
arises in beauty" (compare Melkor "He that arises in Might")
"swift", pl. lintë (Nam, RGEO:66)
lírë "song", instrumental
lírinen "in [the] song" or *"by [the] song" (Nam,
"lark" (MR:238, 262), changed from aimenel,
"sweet" (Nam, RGEO:66)
ablative ending, "from" or "out of", e.g. sindanóriello
"out of a grey land", Rómello "from the East",
Mardello *"from Earth" (FS)
pronominal ending "our", attested (with the genitive ending -o
that displaces final -a) in the word omentielmo "of our
meeting". This "our" is plural inclusive. Frodo (it seems) improperly
used it in the greeting "a star shines on the hour of our meeting":
Since he and the Elf he was speaking to constituted only two persons,
he should have used the dual inclusive instead. The correct
form omentielvo occurs in some of the manuscripts of the Red
Book. See Letters:447.
pronominal ending for inclusive "we", sc. "we" including the person
that is spoken to. Exemplified in laituvalmet "we shall bless
them" (lait-uva-lme-t "bless-shall-we-them") (LotR3:VI ch.
4, translated in Letters:308)
literally "growth", used of a solar year (= coranar) when
seasonal changes are considered (Appendix D; in PM:126
loa is translated "time of growth". Pl.
loar, or "löar", in MR:426)
("lok-") "bend, loop". (May be a primitive stem rather than
loëndë *"year-middle", the middle (183rd)
day of the year, inserted between the months of
Nárië and Cermië (June and July) in
the Númenórean calendar and the Steward's Reckoning
"corpse, dead body"; loicolícuma "corpse-candle" in
lókë "snake, serpent", older
lómë "dusk". In Lómion
"Child of Twilight [dusk]", the Quenya name Aredhel secretly gave to
Maeglin (SA). Otherwise lómë is usually
defined as "night" (Letters:308, LR:41, SD:302, SA:dú),
cf. lómelindë pl. lómelindi
"nightingale" (SA:dú, LR:41; SD:302, MR:172). Derived
adjective *lómëa "gloomy" in
Lómëanor "Gloomyland"; see
"land-locked haven". In Alqualondë "Swan-haven".
(Letters:308; probably just an Elvish "element" rather than a
Lórellin name of the lake where the
Valië Estë sleeps; apparently meaning *"Dream-lake"
Lórien (from lor-) name of a Vala,
properly the place where he dwells, while his real name is
"snow, snow-white" (SA:los)
lótë "flower". In the names
Ninquelóte *"White-flower" (= Nimloth),
Vingilótë "Foam-flower", the name of
Eärendil's ship (SA:loth), also in
Lótessë fifth month of the year, "May"
"they", pronominal suffix occurring in Fíriel's Song
(meldielto "they are beloved" and cárielto "they
made"), also in LT1:114: tulielto "they have come". Probably
not valid in mature Quenya (replaced by -ntë?)
"blue", pl. luini (Nam, RGEO:66). In
Helluin, name of the star Sirius, and Luinil, name of
another blue-shining star (or planet). (SA; Luinil is tentatively
identified with Neptune, MR:435)
of a star (or planet), tentatively identified with Saturn
(MR:435), evidently connected to lumbo,
"cloud", pl. lumbor in Markirya
lumbulë "(heavy) shadow" (Nam,
lúmë (1) "darkness" (one wonders if
Tolkien confused lúmë "time, hour" and
lómë "night") (Markirya)
lúmë (2) "hour", allative
lúmenna "upon the hour", elided lúmenn'
in the greeting elen síla lúmenn' omentielvo
because the next word begins with a similar vowel. The complete form
lúmenna omentielvo is found in WJ:367 and
heavy", a stative verb (LR:47, SD:310; cf.
lumna- "to lie heavy" in the Etymologies,
"bow" (Appendix E)
pronominal ending, "our", of two persons where one addresses the
other (Letters:447). Only attested in the genitive -lvo
in the word omentielvo (see -lma). For this reason it
has been argued that the ending may actually be *-lwa, since
there is some evidence that wo would change to vo in
Quenya and the w of *-lwa could be derived from the
dual ending -u. (FG)
pronominal suffix "thy, your" in tielyanna "upon your path"
(UT:22 cf. 51)
2. person sg. ending: "thou", hiruvalyë "thou shalt find"
"hand", dual *mát "a pair of hands" attested with a
pronominal suffix: máryat "his/her (pair of) hands"
(see -rya, -t) (Nam, RGEO:67), pl.
allative mannar "into hands" (FS). Cf.
Macalaurë ("Makalaurë"), masc.
name, the mother-name (never used in narrative) of
Canafinwë = Maglor (PM:353); his Sindarin name is
seen to be based on his mother-name.
"swordsman", in Menelmacar (see menel)
"throne", nominative pl. mahalmar "thrones" and locative pl.
mahalmassen in Cirion's Oath. Adopted and adapted from
Máhan (pl. Máhani attested in
WJ:402), one of the eight chiefs of the Valar (Adopted and adapted
from Valarin, but usually translated as Aratar)
Máhanaxar the "Doom Ring" of Aman; adopted and adapted
from Valarin. (WJ:399)
Maiar "the Beautiful" (MR:49), the lesser (= non-Vala)
Ainur that entered Eä. Variant Máyar in PM:363,
364 (is this to be understood as an older form?)
("maika") "sharp, piercing" (SA:maeg)
"handed" in Angamaitë, morimaitë,
"well-shaped one", mother-name (never used in narrative) of
Nelyafinwë = Maedhros (PM:353)
"gull", pl. maiwi in Markirya
"yellow" (Letters:308); Malinalda *"Yellow-tree", a
name of Laurelin (SA:mal-; evidently malina +
alda). The translation "Tree of Gold" in the Silmarillion
Index is free; malina means "yellow", not "gold(en)". Cf.
malinornélion "of yellow-trees"; see
laurelindórenan lindelorendor... (LotR2:III ch. 4;
cf. Letters:308). Malinornélion is partitive pl.
genitive of malinornë "mallorn" (UT:167, normal pl.
pl. maller "road" (LR:47, 56; SD:310)
"gold", also name of tengwa 18 (Appendix E)
(Nam, RGEO:67, FS, LR:59, Markirya) cf. PM:357
note 18, where a reference is made to the Eldarin interrogative
element ma, man). However, man is translated
"what" in LR:59. Either Tolkien later adjusted the meaning of the
word, or it covers both "who" and "what".
Man-ië? "What is it?" (LR:59; the
stative-verb suffix -ië is hardly valid in
mana a word
translated "what is" in the sentence mana i-coimas Eldaron[?]
"what is the coimas (lembas) of the Eldar?" (PM:395, a
variant reading in PM:402) Either it is *ma "what" +
ná "is", or mana may itself be a unitary word
"what", and there is not really any word meaning "is" in the
"custody, safe keeping" (MR:350) or "prison, duress" (in
(Mandost-) "Castle of Custody" (the approximate meaning,
according to MR:350) Used as the name of a Vala, properly the place
where he dwells (the Halls of Mandos), while his real name is
"into (the) hands", allative pl. of má. (FS)
"Blessed Being" (Letters:283), adopted from Valarin
Mânawenûz; names ending in -wë were
already frequent in Quenya (WJ:399). Cf. Mánwen,
Mánwë the oldest Quenya forms of
Manwë, closer to the Valarin form (WJ:399).
Lower-case manwë in LR:56.
*"ask", only attested in the past tense: maquentë
"earth", ablative Mardello "from earth" (FS). May be
more or less identical with már "home, house" (of
persons or peoples; in names like Val(i)mar, Vinyamar,
Mar-nu-Falmar, Mardil) (SA:bar)
"abide, be settled or fixed" (UT:317); maruvan "I will abide"
(mar-uva-n "abide-will-I") (EO)
"hall"; only pl. mardi is attested (Nam,
Mar-nu-Falmar "Home under Waves", name of the
sunken Númenor (Silm)
masc. name, "(one) devoted to the house", sc. of the kings
(Appendix A; interpreted in Letters:386)
márië "it is good" (FS; from
mára "good"; the stative-verb suffix
-ië is hardly valid in mature
massánië "breadgiver", used as a title
of the highest woman among any Elvish people, since she had the
keeping and gift of the coimas (lembas). Also simply
translated "Lady" (PM:404)
*mbelekôro is mentioned as "the oldest Q
form" of Melkor; this is obviously a form that belongs to
Common Eldarin rather than Quenya as we know it; note that it is
asterisked as unattested (WJ:402)
mel-lumna "us-is-heavy", sc. *"is heavy for us" (LR:47,
mel- is evidently an assimilated form of
*men "for us", dative of
me); dual met "us (two)"
melánë "I love", a doubtful word
in mature Quenya; read perhaps *mélanyë
(so spelt in MR:362) see Melkor
"they are beloved" (sc.
meld[a]-ië-lto "beloved-are-they" -
both the stative verb ending -ië "is/are" and the ending
-lto "they" may be obsolete in mature Quenya) (FS)
"your mighty" = "your majesty" (see -lda; meletya =
*"mighty"). In full Aran Meletyalda "king your mighty"
"Mighty One", name of the rebellious Vala, usually called
Melkor (FS; MR:350 confirms that the form
Melko is still valid in mature Quenya)
(spelt Melcor in MR:362), the rebellious
Vala, the devil of the Silmarillion mythos. Older form
Melkórë "Mighty-rising" (hence the interpretation
"He that arises in power"). Oldest form *mbelekôro
(WJ:402). Melkorohíni "Children of Melkor", Orcs
("but the wiser say: nay, the slaves of Melkor; but not his children,
for Melkor had no children") (MR:416)
"who", evidently a misreading or miswriting for man
(MC:221, in Markirya)
ménë "on us" (SD:310)
"heavens" (Markirya, SA), "the apparent dome in the sky"
(MR:387). In names like Meneldil *"Heaven-friend" =
astronomer (Appendix A; Letters:386), Meneldur masc.
name, *"Heaven-servant" (Appendix A); Menelmacar
"Swordsman of the Sky", the Orion constellation (also called
Telumehtar, Appendix E, first footnote); the older name was
Menelmacil *"Heaven-sword" (WJ:411); Meneltarma
"Pillar of Heaven", name of the great mountain of Númenor
(SA:tar). Menelya fifth day of the Eldarin six-day
week, dedicated to the heavens (Appendix D)
(two)", including the dual ending -t. Me (LR:56)
evidently means "we".
Metelairë alternative name of August
Meterrívë alternative name of January
métima "last" (Markirya), in Markirya
also twice métim', since the following words
(auressë, andúnë) begin in an
"end"; Ambar-metta "world-end, the end of the world"
(EO); mettarë *"end-day" = New Years' Eve in the
Númenórean calendar and the Steward's Reckoning, not
belonging to any month (Appendix D)
"in the" (Nam, RGEO:66; CO gives mi; the
correct forms should evidenly be mi = "in" and
mí = mi i "in the")
masc. name, *"First-glory"??? (Appendix A)
masc.name *"minar[?]-friend". Perhaps minar is to be
understood as a variant of minas (s being voiced to
z by contact with the voiced plosive that follows, and then
regularly becoming r); if so, the name means *"Tower-friend"
masc.name, *"Tower-maker" (Appendix A)
masc. name, *"Tower-watcher" (Appendix A)
"(great, lofty) tower", allative pl. mindoninnar in
Markirya, changed to the contracted form mindonnar. Cf.
also Mindon Eldaliéva "Lofty Tower of the Eldalië"
Minnónar "First-born", Elves (as contrasted
to Apanónar, the After-born, Men). Sg.
*"Blue Tower" (mindon + luin), name of a mountain.
(Christopher Tolkien translates the name as "Towering Blue-head" in
the Silmarillion Index, but this seems to be based on the
questionable assumption that it includes the Sindarin element
dol "head, hill". Unless this translation is given in his
father's papers, the name is better explained as a Quenya
"first" (see Minyatur); Minyar "Firsts", the original
name of the Vanyar (or rather the direct Quenya descendant of the
original Primitive Quendian name) (WJ:380)
"First-ruler"; Tar-Minyatur "High First-ruler", title of Elros
as the first King of Númenor (SA:minas, PM:348,
mírë "jewel" (SA:mîr). Cf.
Elemmírë; short form -mir in
Míriel *"Jewel-woman" (Silm),
genitive Míriello (see namna)
full form miruvórë "meed", "a special wine or
cordial"; possessive miruvóreva "of meed"
(Nam, RGEO:66; WJ:399)
"incarnates, those (spirits) 'put into flesh' " (MR:350)
"grey"; see lassemista
the "Midlands" of Númenor (UT:165)
pronominal ending, exclusive "we", seen in vammë "we
frequent in names and titles, sometimes with an agental significance
"darkness" (Letters:308; probably just an Elvish "element" rather
than a complete word; Namárië has
mornië for "darkness")
"dark, darkness" (Letters:282); morimaitë
"black-handed" (LotR3:VI ch. 6). Moriquendi "Dark
Elves" (SA:mor, WJ:373). Moringotto "Black Foe",
Sindarin Morgoth. The oldest form is said to have been
Moriñgotho (MR:194). Morion "the dark
one", a title of Morgoth (FS). Morifinwë "dark
Finwë", masc. name; he was called Caranthir in Sindarin.
Short Quenya name Moryo. (PM:353)
"dark, black" in tumbalemorna (Letters:282); pl.
mornë in Markirya (the first version
of this poem had "green rocks", MC:215, changed to ondolisse
mornë "upon dark rocks" in the final version; see MC:220,
"darkness" (Nam, RGEO:67)
dative ending, in nin, enyalien
-n (2) or
-nye pronominal ending, 1. person sg. "I".
Utúlien "I am come" (EO)
-n (3) a
plural sign used in some of the cases (WJ:407)
"is" (Nam, RGEO:67). See also nai.
prefix occurring in the Markirya poem, changed to a-,
untranslated word occurring in LR:47 (= nucumna "humbled" in
SD:246, cf. SD:290, end of note 59)
name of Oromë's horse, adopted and adapted from Valarin
nai "be it
that", used with a future tense-verb to express a wish. The
translation "maybe" in Tolkien's rendering of
Namárië is somewhat misleading; he used "be it
that" in the interlinear translation in RGEO:67. Nai
hiruvalyë Valimar! Nai elyë hiruva! *"May thou find
Valimar. May even thou find it!" (Nam). Nai tiruvantes
"be it that they will guard it" > "may they guard it"
"Heart of Flame", a name of the Sun (MR:198)
Ñaltariel true Quenya form of
Galadriel; the form actually used was Altariel,
Quenyarized from Telerin Alatáriel(lë).
namárië "farewell" (Nam,
(1) "Judge", name of a Vala, normally called Mandos, properly
the place where he dwells (WJ:402), (2) námo "a
person, somebody" (PM:340)
"statute"; Namna Finwë Míriello "the Statute of
Finwë and Míriel" (MR:258)
"valley" in Laurenandë (UT:253); also nan,
nand- "valley" (Letters:308); Nan-Tasarion "Vale
of Willows" (LotR2:III ch. 4)
of the Green-elves (Laiquendi); the original word
*ndandô implied "one who goes back on his word or
decision", since the Nandor left the March from Cuiviénen to
Aman. Adj. Nandorin. (WJ:412)
Nárië sixth month of the year, "June"
masc. name, *"Flame-sword" (Appendix A)
Narquelië tenth month of the year, "October"
(Appendix D); the word seems to mean "Fire-waning",
"Sun-waning". Compare narquelion ("narqelion") "Fading"
in Fíriel's Song.
sword of Elendil, compound of the stems seen in Anar "Sun" and
Isil "Moon"; see Letters:425 for etymology
"(the song) of the Sun and Moon"; actually the stems of the words for
Sun and Moon compounded (see Narsil above) and a plural
genitive ending added (Silm)
Narvinyë first month of the year, "January".
The word seems to mean "New Fire/Sun". (Appendix D)
of the Red Ring, the Ring of Fire; apparently an adjective meaning
something like "Fiery (One)" (SA:nár)
(in Vanyarin Quenya only). Adopted and adapted from Valarin.
("nauka") adjective especially applied to things that though
in themselves full-grown were smaller or shorter than their kind, and
were hard, twisted or ill-shapen (WJ:413)
("Nauko") "Dwarf"; Naucalië (not
*Naucolië) the "Dwarf-people" as a whole. From
nauca. See also Picinaucor (WJ:388)
Návarot "Nogrod" (< Novrod), Hollowbold,
a dwelling of the Dwarves (WJ:389)
-dil) ending in many names, like Amandil,
Eärendil; it implies devotion or disinterested love and
may be translated "friend" (SA:(n)dil); this ending is
"describing the attitude of one to a person, thing, course or
occupation to which one is devoted for its own sake"
"land" in compounds (Letters:308, UT:253)
-dur) ending in some names, like Eärendur; as
noted by Christopher Tolkien in the Silmarillion Appendix it has much
the same meaning as -ndil "friend"; yet -ndur properly
means "servant of" (SA:(n)dil), "as one serves a legitimate
master: cf. Q. arandil king's friend, royalist, beside
arandur 'king's servant, minister'. But these often coincide:
e.g. Sam's relation to Frodo can be viewed either as in status
-ndur, in spirit -ndil." (Letters:286)
"pale, vague, faint, dim to see", pl. nécë
("néke") in Markirya
"spearhead", isolated from nernehta, q.v.
any formation or projection tapering to a point: a spearhead, gore,
wedge, narrow promontory (UT:282)
"third" in Nelyar "Thirds", the original name of the Teleri
(or rather the direct Quenya descendant of the original Primitive
Quendian name) (WJ:380); Nelyafinwë "Finwë
third" (after the original Finwë and Curufinwë =
Fëanor), masc. name; he was called Maedhros in Sindarin.
Short Quenya name Nelyo. (PM:352)
Nelyafinwë under nelya
Nénar name of a star (or planet), evidently
derived from nén "water" (Silm), tentatively
identified with Uranus (MR:435)
"Water-lovers", the most frequently used "title" or secondary name of
the Lindar (WJ:411)
Nénimë second month of the year,
"February" (Appendix D)
of the Blue Ring, apparently an adjective meaning something like
"Watery (One)" (SA:nen)
pl. neri "man" (MR:213), nernehta
"man-spearhead", a battle-formation (UT:282)
of a Valië, the spouse of Tulkas (adopted and adapted from
Valarin, OR an archaic Elvish formation) (WJ:404 vs. 416);
nessamelda "Nessa-beloved", name of a tree (UT:167)
ngwalmë see nwalmë
dative nin "for me" (Nam, RGEO:67)
("niku-") "be chill, cold (of weather)" (WJ:417)
(ñillë") a star-imagine on Nur-menel
(q.v.), from a stem ngil- "silver glint" (MR:388)
me", dative (FS)
-ndil in Eärnil, contraction of
"white, chill, palid" (WJ:417, SA:nim), pl. ninqui in
Markirya; Ninquelótë "Nimloth", lit.
*"White-Flower" (SA:nim), = Sindarin Nimloth, the White
Tree of Númenor
element occurring in Fíriel's Song, evidently meaning
"my"; see indo-ninya. May not be valid in mature Quenya, that
has the ending -nya for "my".
Nísimaldar "Fragrant trees", a region in
Númenor (UT:167; evidently
*nísima "fragrant" +
"it is cold, it freezes" (WJ:417)
"frost-patterns", also niquessë by association with
quessë "feather" (WJ:417)
pl. nissi "woman" (MR:213)
Nísinen *"Fragrance-water", a lake in
upon", allative ending in cilyanna, Endorenna,
Elendilenna, Elenna, númenna,
tielyanna, q.v. Plural -nnar in mannar,
Nócoirë alternative name of March
the "Valley of the Tombs" in Númenor (evidently
*noirë, *noiri- "tomb" + nan "valley")
Nólairë alternative name of July
of the people of the Noldor", also name of tengwa 19. Originally
pronounced ngoldo (also spelt ñoldo by Tolkien);
initial ng had become n in Third Age pronunciation
(Appendix E). Pl. Noldor ("Ñoldor"), "the
Wise", name of the second clan of the Eldar (WJ:380, 381)
Noldóran (Ñoldóran") "King of the
Noldor" (PM:343; evidently noldo +
aran); Noldolantë "the Fall of
the Noldor" (name of a song) (Silm)
nólë "long study (of any subject),
lore, knowledge" (SA:gûl, also WJ:383 and MR:350, there
("Ñolmë") "knowledge, Philosophy (including
Science)" (PM:360 cf. 344)
("ñolmo") "wise person" (PM:360)
Nóquellë alternative name of October
"land" (as opposed to sea; nor in Letters:308);
nórë "land" (associated with a particular people)
(WJ:413), also used = "people" (SA:dôr; the normal
word for "people" is lië)
*nórië "country", in
sindanórië (see sinda) (Nam,
"stiff, tough" (WJ:413)
"dwarf"; a personalized form of the adjective norna
(WJ:413); Nornalië (not
*Nornolië) the "Dwarf-people" as a whole
Norrívë alternative name of December
"kindred, family" (PM:320)
"parents", pl. of *nostar or *nostaro "parent"
(LotR3:VI ch. 6, translated in Letters:308)
nótina "counted" (FS), past
participle of not- "count", also glossed "reckon" (see the
stem NOT- in the Etymologies)
Nótuilë alternative name of May
pronomimal ending, inflexion of 3 plural ("they") when no subject is
previously mentioned (CO)
(LR:56, Markirya, Nam, RGEO:66)
Núaran *"West-king"; Núaran
Númenoren *"West-king of Númenor"; changed
(according to LR:71) to Núraran Númenen,
*"West-king of the West" (all of this is "Qenya" with genitive in
-n instead of -o, as in mature Quenya)
("nukumna") "humbled" (SD:246)
"stunt, prevent from coming to completion, stop short, not allow to
"under shadow" (allativic) (SD:246); see
númeheruen *"of the Lord of the West"
(Manwë) (SD:290); this is "Qenya" with genitive in -en
instead of -o as in mature Quenya
númeheruvi "Lords-of-West" (*"West-lords")
númë "going down, occident"
(Letters:361); apparently meaning "west" in
númeheruen and numeheruvi
númen "the way of the sunset, west"
(SA:andúnë, capitalized Númen under
SA:men and in CO), "going down, occudent"
(Letters:361), also name of tengwa 17 (Appendix E).
Allative númenna "Westward" (LR:47, SD:310)
See also númenyaron, númessier.
Númen(n)órë "people of the
west", confused with Númendor "land of the west"
(SA:dôr); hence Númenor as the name of the
great isle given to the Edain by the Valar (FS, LR:56); full
form Númenórë (LR:47, SD:247),
allative númenórenna "to Númenor"
Númendor "land of the west", confused with
and replaced by Númen(n)órë "people of the
númenyaron a word occurring in a phrase from
an earlier version of Fíriel's Song, Valion
númenyaron, "of the Lords [Valar] of the West". But
númenyaron cannot simply mean "of the West"; it seems
to be the plural genitive of númenya "western", hence
literally *"of the western (things, persons, realms)" or "of the
Númerrámar "West-wings", name of a
ship (Númen + rámar, note assimilation
nr > rr) (UT:175)
númessier "they are in the west", a
construction occurring in Fíriel's Song, evidently
"west-in-are-they"; see -ië. (FS)
Númevalion *"of the West-powers" (SD:290);
Núnatani "Western Men" = Sindarin
Nunduinë *"West-flow", name of a river in
the lesser firmament, a great dome covering Valinor, made by Varda
and full of star-imagines (see tinwë, nillë).
It was a simulacrum of Tar-menel, the true firmament
nurtalë "hiding" (evidently a verbal stem
*nurta- "hide" with the verbal noun ending -lë);
Nurtalë Valinóreva "the Hiding of Valinor"
"reversed", or perhaps rather *"turned upside down". In the phrases
silmë nuquerna and árë nuquerna,
"murmur, grumble"; participle nurrula in Markirya,
changed to nurrua, perhaps a kind of verbal adjective of the
same meaning (translated "mumbling" in MC:215)
nuruhuinë "death-shadow" (LR:47, 56,
"torment", also name of tengwa 20. Originally pronounced
ngwalmë; initial ng had become n in Third
Age pronunciation (Appendix E)
pronominal suffix, 1. person sg. possessive, "my", e.g.
tatanya "my father" (UT:191). This ending seems to
prefer i as its connecting vowel where one is needed, cf.
Anarinya "my sun" in LR:72, so also in hildinyar.
pronominal suffix "I"; also short form -n. In
utúvienyes (see tuv-)top
o a word
for "and" occurring solely in SD:246; all other sources give
ending, in Oromëo, Elenna-nórëo,
Lestanórëo, q.v. Pl. -ion and -ron,
-ó "a person, somebody", pronominal suffix, later
replaced by námo (PM:340)
(usually reduced to o- when unstressed) a prefix "used in
words describing the meeting, junction, or union of two things or
persons, or of two groups thought of as units". In
omentië, ónoni, ónona
oar ("öa, öar") adverbs, not clearly glossed
but apparently meaning "away" (WJ:365)
"went away (to another place)"; past tense of auta-. Also
perfect oantië. (WJ:365)
("Oärel") pl. Oareldi "Elf who departed from
Beleriand to Aman" (while the Sindar stayed there) (WJ:363,
Vanyarin (and original) form of Oareldi (WJ:374)
"war-made", made war (+ allative = make war upon) (LR:47, SD:246;
ohtacárië in LR:56). The past tense is probably
*ohtacarnë in mature Quenya. Noun ohtar "warrior,
"everlastingly" (Nam, RGEO:67)
Eruo (-"karmë") "the One's [Eru's] perpetual
production", free rendering "God's management of the Drama"
endless period" (CO) or "ever" (SA:los).
Oiolairë "Ever-summer" (name of a tree, UT:167; also in
the name Coron Oiolairë, "Mound of Ever-summer",
assimilated corol- in the contraction Corollairë)
(SA:coron); Oiolossë "Everwhite, Ever-snowwhite",
a name of Taniquetil, hence the translation "Mount Everwhite" in
Tolkien's rendering of Namárië. See also
SA:los. Explicit "mount" in Oron Oiolossë "Mount
Everwhite" (WJ:403). Ablativic genitive Oiolossëo
"from Mount Everwhite" in Namárië (Nam,
Oiomúrë place-name; *"Ever-?mist"
"to dream" (said to be "impersonal", probably meaning that the
dreamer is mentioned in the dative rather than the nominative)
olassië "collection of leaves, foliage"
"branch" (PM:340; the variant *olva may be
more frequent; olba can only occur in the Quenya
variant that uses lb for
lv. The Etymologies, stem GÓLOB,
"dream, vision" (pl. olori from earlier olozi)
Olórin name of the Maia that became Gandalf,
connected to olos (UT:396)
*olva) "growing things with roots in the earth, *plants"
masc. name (PM:340), difficult interpret (PM:341)
"voice"; *ómarya "his/her voice"; genitive
ómaryo "of his/her voice" (Nam, RGEO:67).
Instrumental pl. ómainen "with voices" (WJ:391).
Óma also seems to mean "vowel", seen in the
compounds ómataina "vocalic extension", the addition to
the base a final vowel identical to the stem-vowel
(sundóma) (WJ:371, 417), ómatehtar
"vowel-signs", signs used for vowels (usually called simply
tehtar, strictly including all kinds of diacritics)
omentië "meeting" (meeting or junction of the
directions of two people) (WJ:367), *omentielva "our
meeting", only attested in the genitive: omentielvo "of our
meeting". See -lva. Concerning the alternative reading
omentielmo, see -lma.
ending, in Silmarillion, Valion, aldaron,
aranion, tasarion (see Nan-Tasarion),
Númevalion, Sindaron, Istarion,
Ingweron, Quendion, Eldaron.
"stone" (UT:459) in Ondolindë "Gondolin"
(SA:gond); pl. ondor in an earlier variant of
Markirya; partitive pl. locative ondolissë "on
rocks" in the final version; Ondoher masc.name, *"Stone-lord"
(ondo alluding to Gondor, "stone-land") (Appendix
onóna (1) adj. "twin-born"; (2) noun "one of
a pair of twins"; pl. onóni "twins" (WJ:367)
son" (not the normal word for "son", however - it seems to be derived
from the stem ONO "beget") (UT:174)
("orko") "Orc", pl. orcor or orqui (WJ:390;
pl. Orcor in MR:74)
órë "heart" (inner mind), also name of
tengwa 21. (Appendix E) Cf. the description of Galadriel in
PM:337, that "there dwelt in her the noble and generous spirit
(órë) of the Vanyar".
"physical matter" (MR:218, 231, 471)
of the Lamps of the Valar: *"High-Gold"??? (Silm)
"tree" (Letters:308, SD:302: "when smaller and more slender like a
birch or rowan"). For the etymology, see Letters:426. In
ornemalin "tree-yellow"; see laurelindórenan
lindelorendor... (LotR2:III ch. 4; cf. Letters:308). Masc.
name Ornendil *"Tree-friend" (Appendix A)
*oromardë "high-hall", pl oromardi
"the Red Mountains", place-name: lit. *"Mountain-Reds"
orofarnë "mountain-dwelling" (LotR2:III ch.
4, translated in Letters:224)
name of a Vala, adopted and adapted from Valarin. Observes Pengolodh,
"the Eldar now take the name to singify 'horn-blowing' or
'horn-blower', but to the Valar it had no such meaning"
(WJ:400-401, cf. SA:rom) Genitive Oromëo and
possessive Oroméva in WJ:368.
place-name of obscure meaning (Silm)
Oiolossë "Mount Everwhite" (WJ:403)
the "Eastlands" of Númenor (UT:165)
"rise, raise, lift up", pa.t. ortanë (Nam, RGEO:67;
misreading "ortani" in Letters:426)
ósanwë-centa "communication of thought"
name of a Maia, adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:400)
strong or fortified building or place, strong place, fortress, *city"
(MR:350, 471; WJ:414); Ostoher masc. name, *"City-lord"
and wide" in palantíri, Tar-Palantir
(SA); assimilated palar- in Palarran.
palantír (pl. palantíri)
*"Far-seer", the magic far-seeing stones made by the Noldor in the
First Age. Etymology, Letters:427. Also Palantir masc. name,
"Far-sighted" (Appendix A)
"Far-Wanderer", name of a ship (palan + ran, note
assimilation nr > rr) (UT:179)
"book", also name of tengwa 2 (Appendix E);
parmatéma "p-series", labials (Appendix
masc.name, *"Fence-servant"??? (Appendix A)
"beyond", apparently a postposition rather than a preposition in
Quenya: Andúnë pella "beyond the West",
elenillor pella "from beyond the stars" (Nam, RGEO:66,
Pelóri "Fencing Heights", the mountains
raised by the Valar to protect Aman (SA:pel, WJ:403)
"Half-elven" (= Sindarin Peredhil)
píca- "lessen, dwindle, waning"; participle
pícala "waning" (with locative ending:
pícalassë) in Markirya
("Pikinaukor") "Petty-dwarves" (cf. nauco). Alto
Pityafinwë "Little Finwë", masc. name; he
was called Amrod in Sindarin. Short Quenya name Pityo
púrëa "smeared, discoloured"
quáco ("quáko") "crow"
Quantarië "Day of Completion, Oldyear's Day"
("quantiën") "full year" = yén (PM:126;
pl. quantiéni, PM:127)
"fist" ("though its chief use was in reference to the tightly closed
hand as in using an implement or a craft-tool rather than to the
'fist' as used in punching", PM:318)
quárë "fist" (SA:celeb)
"fill" (WJ:392), future quantuva "shall fill"
(enquantuva "shall refill") (Nam, RGEO:67)
"waning" in Narquelië, q.v.
"fading", in the calendar of Imladris a precisely defined period of
54 days, but also used without any exact definition, for the latter
part of autumn and the beginning of winter (Appendix D)
("qeluva") *"will fail", future tense of a verb *quel-
pl. queni (as final element in compounds: -quen) "one,
(some)body, person, individual, man or woman", pl. "persons", "(some)
people", "they" with the most general meaning (as in "they [= people
in general] say that..."). Combined with noun and adjective stems in
old compounds to denote habitual occupations or functions, or to
describe those having some notable (permanent) quality; examples
include roquen, ciryaquen, arquen, q.v. Also in
aiquen, ilquen (WJ:361 cf. 360, 372)
"elf", the little-used sg. of Quendi, q.v.
(also contracted Quendil; pl. Quendili in WJ:410)
"Quendian, belonging to the Elves as a whole" (a learned word)
"Elves" as a race (analogical sg. quendë, not much used)
(WJ:361; SA:quen-/quet-, WJ:372). Gen. pl.
quendir "Elvish woman" (MR:229; changed from
quendur *"Elvish man" (MR:229; changed from
quendo pl. quendor)
original form of the word Quenya, preserved in the Vanyarin
dialect (Quenya is the Noldorin form) (WJ:361, 371)
"speech" (PM:399); the language-name Quenya is said to
mean properly "language, speech" (WJ:393). However,
Quenya (archaic Quendya, still so in Vanyarin) is also
interpreted "Elvish" (Letters:176), sc. the adjective
corresponding to Quendi (WJ:374), but no longer used as
a general adjective. Quenya lambë "Quenya tongue"
probably "turned"; isolated from nuquerna (q.v.)
*"under-turned" = reversed, turned upside down
"feather", also name of tengwa 4 (Appendix E, WJ:417);
quessetéma "labialized series" (Appendix E)
speak" (SA:quen-/quet-), pa.t. quentë in PM:401,
"word" (SA:quen-/quet-), pl. quettar
("rak-") "break", past participle rácina
("rákina") "broken" in Markirya
"bent", pl. raicar in LR:47 (read *raicë in mature
"wing", pl. rámar (Nam, RGEO:66);
Markirya has both nominative pl. rámar "wings"
and instrumental pl. rámainen *"with wings" (translated
"on wings" by Tolkien).
"the Wayward, the Wanderer", a name of the moon (MR:198,
rangar is attested) "yard, full pace". This
Númenórean linar measure was "slightly longer than our
yard, approximately 38 inches [= 96.5 cm]". (UT:285, 461)
("rauko") "a powerful, hostile, and terrible creature",
especially in the compound Valarauco "Demon of Might"
(WJ:415, cf. SA)
"(noise of a) storm" (Markirya)
rávë "roaring noise", from which noun
is derived the adj. rávëa "roaring"
ré "day" (of the sun) (Appendix
D); -rë in compounds like Ringarë
"mesh" (Appendix E, in a footnote)
"garlanded maiden" (SA:kal-), full form riellë "a
maiden crowned with a festival garland" (PM:347). In
"great number, host" (SA:rim, Letters:282)
Ringarë the twelfth and last month of the
year, "December" (Appendix D, SA:ring); the word seems to mean
Rithil-Anamo "Ring of Doom", translation of the
foreign word Máhanaxar that was adopted and adapted
from Valarin. Likely *Risil-Anamo in Exilic Quenya
pronominal ending "he", in antaváro, q.v.
("rokko") "swift horse for riding" (SA:roch; Letters:428;
cf. 282 where the spelling really is rocco, not
rokko. In 428 the word is defined as "swift
horse for riding".)
Rómen "east" (SA:men), "uprising,
sunrise, east" (SA:rómen); also name of tengwa 25
(Appendix E). Rómenna, a place in the eastern
part of Númenor, is simply the allative "eastward"
(SA:rómen), cf. also rómenna in LR:47,
56. Ablative Rómello "from the East" or "[to one] from
the East", hence Tolkien's translation "to those from the East" in
his rendering of Namárië (Nam,
RGEO:67). Masc. name Rómendacil "East-victor"
(Appendix A; cf. Letters:425)
pl. ending in aldaron, see alda
vaulted or arched roof, as seen from below" (and usually not visible
from outside); "a (large) hall or chamber so roofed"
"horseman (-woman), rider, knight" (WJ:372, UT:282)
"fine rain, dew" (PM:371)
small grot or tunnel" (PM:365)
"Drûg", Rúatan pl. Rúatani
rúcima ("rúkima") "terrible"
("rukin") "I feel fear or horror", 1. pers. aorist
(constructed with 'from' of the object feared) (WJ:415)
rúcina ("rúkina") "confused,
shattered, disordered, ruined" in Markirya (the first version
of this poem had "red skies", MC:215, changed to "ruined skies" in
the final version; see MC:220, note 8)
rúma- "shift, move, heave (of large and
heavy things)"; participle rúmala in Markirya;
this was changed to rúma, evidently the naked verbal
stem used as participle
Rúmil masc. name, genitive
"red flame" (SA:ruin; PM:366 gives
"Copper-top", a nickname (epessë) of
Maitimo/Nelyafinwë (= Maedhros) (PM:354)
word occurring in the Markirya poem, elided from
*ruxala (the next word begins in an a), translated
"crumbling", participle of *ruxa- "crumble" (a verbal stem not
attested by itself) (Markirya)
pronominal ending "his, her" (Nam, RGEO:67) in
máryat "her hands", ómaryo "of her voice"
(genitive of *ómarya "her voice"),
súmaryassë "in her bosom" (locative of
súmarya "her bosom"); for the meaning "his" cf.
coarya "his house" (WJ:369)top
pronominal ending, "it", in tiruvantes and
saccantë ("sakkante") "rent" (past
tense of an otherwise unattested verb *saccat- "rend"?)
(masc. name; etymology unclear) (Silm)
"shield-barrier", a battle-formation (UT:282; probably
sandastam- since the final element is derived
from a stem stama- "bar, exclude")
"press, throng"; in Sangahyando "Throng-cleaver", name of a
man in Gondor (SA:thang; a footnote in Letters:425 explains that
"throng" here means a closely formed body of enemy soldiers)
"letter" (pl. sarati), any individual significant mark, used
of the letters of Rúmil after the invention of Fëanor's
sard-, see the Etymologies, entry SAR) "stone". In
"shingle, pebble-bank" (UT:463)
Abhorred", name of a Maia. Earlier Thauron (SA:thaur),
archaic *thaurond- (Letters:380, where a special letter is
used instead of the digraph th)
fixed idea, will" (WJ:319; only the archaic/Vanyarin form
thelma is given, actually spelt with the letter
thorn, not the digraph
("serkë) "blood" (SA:sereg)
sérë "rest", noun (cf. SED in
the Etymologies); see under úyë concerning the
sentence úyë sérë indo-ninya
símen in Fíriel's Song
Serindë fem. name; "Broideress" (Silm)
or "Needlewoman" (PM:333). Original form Therindë,
"now" (Nam, RGEO:67, LR:47, 310), sin (LR:47) or
sín (SD:247, 310) before vowels. In
Fíriel's Song, sí is translated "here".
"shine" (white), present tense síla "shines, is
shining" (FG); frequentative sisíla-
substance the Silmarils were made of, invented by Fëanor
Silmarien (sometimes "-riën") fem.
name, apparently incorporates sil(i)ma
pl. Silmarilli the shining jewels made by Fëanor
(SA:sil). Translated "radiance of pure light" in
Letters:148. Genitive Silmarillion, as in
(Quenta) Silmarillion "(the story) of the
"starlight", also name of tengwa 29 (Appendix E);
silmë nuquerna "s reversed", name of tengwa 30,
similar to normal silmë but turned upside down
alternative name of Telperion (Silm); derived from a stem
SÍLIP, a longer form of SIL (also THIL) "shine silver"
símen "here" (FS; cf.
sinomë in EO)
sin (1) a
word either meaning "thus" (adverb) or "this" (as an
independent word in the sentence, not modifying another word like
sina does). Attested in the sentence sin quentë
Quendingoldo Elendilenna, either *"this Pengolodh said to
Elendil" or "thus spoke Pengolodh to Elendil" (PM:401). (2) a
form of sí "now" (q.v.) occurring before vowels,
possibly replaced by sín.
(following its noun in our sole example: vanda sina
"this oath") (CO)
"flint-hearted" (LotR3:VI ch. 6)
"grey"; nominal pl. Sindar used = "Grey-elves", lit. *"Grey
ones"; see WJ:375. Gen. pl. Sindaron in WJ:369. With general
meaning "grey" also in Sindacollo > Singollo
"Grey-cloak, Thingol" (SA:thin(d); see also
sindanórië "grey land", ablative
sindanóriello "from/out of a grey country"
(Nam). However, other sources give sindë (q.v.) as
the Quenya word for "grey"; perhaps sinda came to mean
primarily "Grey-elf" as a noun. Derived adjective Sindarin
"Grey-elven", normally used of the Grey-elven language. (Appendix
"Grey-elven" in the phrase hwesta sindarinwa "Grey-elven
hw" (Appendix E); it may really be "Sindarin" (as a noun) with
the possessive ending -va, -wa appended, hence
literally "hw of [the] Sindarin [language]"
"grey, pale or silvery grey" (the Vanyarin dialect preserves the
older form thindë) (WJ:384; in SA:thin(d) the form
given is sinda, cf. also
sindanóriello "from a grey country" in
Namárië. Sindë and
sinda are apparently variants of the same word.)
Sindeldi "Grey-elf" = Sinda, Sindar, but less
"Grey-cloak", title of Elwë (Elu). Sindarin Thingol.
(WJ:410, MR:217). (Sindi- in this name is a
compound form of sindë, q.v.) Original form
Thindicollo (WJ:333). The Silmarillion appendix
(SA:thin(d) ) gives Sindacollo.
contraction of Sindicollo (Silm)
"in this place" (EO)
masc .name, *"Sirion-friend" (Appendix A)
sisíla- is said to be the "frequentative"
form of sil- (MC:223); the participle sisílala
in Markirya is simply translated "shining".
"eagle" (archaic thorno) (Letters:427). Also
"eagles", changed to sorni (SD:290)
Sindarin Thorondor, name of an Eagle (SA:thoron)
Soronúmë (name of a constellation,
apparently incorporating soron "eagle") (SA:thoron)
locative ending; in Lóriendessë, q.v.; pl.
-ssen in yassen, mahalmassen, q.v.
súlë "spirit", also name of tengwa 9;
originally thúlë, before the shift th >
s that occurred shortly before the rebellion of the Noldor
súlimë the third month of the year
Súlimë third month of the year, "March"
Súlimo title of Manwë
"hollow cavity, bosom"; cf. súmaryassë "in her
bosom" (súma-rya-ssë "bosom-her-in) in
Quendian consonantal "base"; sundóma *"base-vowel", the
determinant vowel of a base (Christopher Tolkien gives the example
KAT, which stem has the sundóma A; the stem TALAT has
the sundóma repeated; in derivative forms the
sundóma might be placed before the first consonant;
e.g. ATALAT) (WJ:319)
súrë "wind", instrumental
súrinen "in the wind" or more literally *"by the wind"
(Nam, RGEO:66, Markirya); Súrion
masc.name, *"Wind-son" (Appendix A)top
-t (1) dual
ending, denoting a pair of something: máryat
"her (pair of) hands" (Nam)
"them", pronominal ending; seen in the word laituvalmet "we
shall bless them" (lait-uva-lme-t "bless-shall-we-them"). Also
independent word te.
reduced pronominal affix of the 2. person, "you" (sg.). See
talantië "he is fallen"; (FS; see
-ië concerning the doubtful authority of
the stative verb ending in mature Quenya)
stem used for "slipping, sliding, falling down"
"slip, slide down, collapse"; reduplicated stem in the participle
talta-taltala in Markirya, simply translated
"falling" in MC:215
show, indicate" (MR:350, 385, 471) (also the demonstrative
("Tankol") "Signifer", "the significant star" = Venus
taniquelassë name of tree (UT:167),
perhaps Tanique(til) + lassë "leaf"
the highest of the mountains of Valinor, upon which were the mansions
of Manwë and Varda; properly, this name refers to the topmost
peak only, the whole mountain being called Oiolossë
element prefixed to the names of the Kings and Queens of
Númenor (e.g. Tar-Amandil); see their individual names
(like Amandil in this case), also in Tareldar
"High-elves"; see also Tarmenel.
"lofty" (SA:tar), "tall, high" (WJ:417)
masc. name; "High-gift"? (Appendix A)
Tar-Calion, Quenya name of Ar-Pharazôn (LR:47,
SD:246); see Calion
masc. name, *"High-man", also used to mean Númenórean
tárë "in that day", not translated in
its first occurrence in Fíriel's Song
"queen", etymologically "she that is high" (SA:tar) Genitive
tário. Elentári "Starqueen", a title of
Varda. (Nam, RGEO:67). Tarinya "my queen" (UT:179;
sic, not *tárinya)
tárië "height", allative
tárienna "to [the] height" (LotR3:VI ch. 4,
translated in Letters:308)
Tárion alternative name of Valanya,
the last day of the Eldarin six-day week, dedicated to the Powers
(Valar) (Appendix D)
"pillar" (SA:tar); Tarmasundar "the Roots of the
Pillar", the slopes of Meneltarma in Númenor
"High Heaven" (LotR1:II ch. 1), Tar-melel "the true
firmament", as opposed to Nur-menel (q.v.) (MR:388)
masc. name, *"Lord of Ondor (Gondor)" (Appendix A)
masc. name, "Lord of ostar [?]" (Appendix A)
"willow". In Tasarinan *"Willow-valley", Nan-tasarion
*"Valley of willows" (SA:tathar)
Tasarinan *"Willow-vale", also
Nan-Tasarion (LotR2:III ch. 4)
"Seconds", the original name of the Noldor (or rather the direct
Quenya descendant of the original name) (WJ:380)
"wood, forest" (SA:taur, Letters:308), pl. tauri in
Markirya; adj. taurëa "forested" in
"Forestmanyshadowed-deepvalleyblack Deepvalleyforested Gloomyland",
Quenya elements agglutinated in Entish fashion; this supposedly means
something like "there is a black shadow in the deep dales of the
forest" (LotR2:III ch. 4; translated in Appendix F under "Ents";
cf. also Letters:308)
place-name, *"Wood-black" (LotR2:III ch. 4)
Tauremornalómë place-name, *"Forest (of) Black
Night" (LotR2:III ch. 4)
(LotR3:VI ch. 4, translated in Letters:308)
("tekil") "pen" (PM:318)
tehtar "signs", diacritics, often used of the Fëanorian
vowel-signs (explicitly ómatehtar) (Appendix
"stem" (Appendix E)
"last, final" (WJ:407)
"finish, end" (intransitive), also "be the last thing or person in a
series or sequence of events" (WJ:411)
Telemmaitë masc. name, *"Silver-handed"
masc.name, "Silver-flame" (Appendix A; for *Telep-nar)
"those at the end of the line, the hindmost", a name of the Lindar,
the third clan of the Eldar (WJ:382 cf. 371), derived from the
stem tel- "finish, end, be last" (SA:tel-)
"dome, copula", especially the "Dome of Varda" over Valinor, but also
applied to the domes of the mansion of Manwë and Varda upon
Taniquetil. Adopted from Valarin delgûmâ under the
influence of pure Quenya telumë (WJ:399, 411). Pl.
tellumar is attested (Nam, RGEO:66).
conclusion, anything used to finish off a work or affair", often
applied to the last item in a structure, such as a coping-stone, or a
topmost pinnacle (WJ:411)
"silver" (telep- in some compounds like Telperion;
assimilated telem- in Telemnar) (SA:celeb; also
UT:266). The true Quenya descendant of primitive
*kyelepê is tyelpë, but the Telerin form
telpë was more common, "for the Teleri prized silver
above gold, and their skill as silversmiths was esteemed even by the
Noldor" (UT:266). Telperion the White Tree of Valinor;
Telperien ("Telperiën"), fem. name including
telep- "silver" (Appendix A); Telperinquar
"Silver-fist, Celebrimbor" (SA:celeb - also
Teleporno "Silver-high, Celeborn" (Letters:347,
Telufinwë "Last Finwë", masc. name; he
was called Amras in Sindarin. Short Quenya name
"roof, canopy" (WJ:411 cf. 399; see also
telluma); Telumehtar "warrior of the
sky", older name of Menelmacar = Orion (Appendix E,
WJ:411); Telumendil *"Sky-friend", name of a constellation
"finish, wind up, conclude" (transitive) (WJ:411)
(pl. témar attested) "series" (Appendix E)
in Fíriel's Song; apparently replaced by an in
tengwar attested) a letter, the written representation of a
tengwë. In non-technical usage tengwa was
equivalent to "consonant", since only the consonants were full signs
(pl. tengwi attested) "indication, sign, token", apparently
often used = phoneme in a language (WJ:394);
hloníti tengwi "phonetic signs" (WJ:395)
"a system or code of signs", a technical term for "language",
including languages not made up of sounds (WJ:394), but used
to mean "spoken language" when unqualified (WJ:395)
tengwestië "Language" as abstract or
"until, up to, as far as" (CO), elided tenn' in the phrase
tenn' Ambar-metta "until the end of the world" in EO, because
the next word begins in a similar vowel; tennoio "for ever"
(tenna + oio, q.v.)
"through" (Notes on CO, UT:317)
"straight" (LR:47; "téna" in SD:310 may be a
("terken") "insight", literally *"through-sight"
(MR:471); adj. *tercenya (only pl. tercenyë
attested) "of insight"; essi tercenyë "names of insight",
names given to a child by its mother, indicating some dominant
feature of its nature as perceived by her (MR:216)
"Slender-(and)-dark", masc. name (LR:59)
terhantë "broke", past tense of terhat-
"break" (LR:47/56, cf. the stem SKAT in the Etymologies)
"stand" meaning last (ter-mar- "through-abide"); future
tense termaruva in Cirion's Oath
earlier form of Sauron, before the change th >
s (SA:thaur, cf. Letters:380, that suggests a stem
thaurond-, there spelt with the Greek letter for
= older form of sindë, q.v., preserved in Vanyarin
(WJ:384, there spelt with the special letter
thorn, not the digraph
archaic/Vanyarin form of sorno (Letters:427)
thúlë see súlë
"path", pl. tier in Namárië; (Nam,
RGEO:67); tielyanna "upon your path" (UT:22 cf. 51;
"blink, peer", participle tihtala in an earlier variant of
Horned", name of a Maia, steersman of the Moon (SA:til)
"metal", also name of tengwa 1 (Appendix E);
tincotéma "t-series", dental series (Appendix
tindómë "starry twilight"
(SA:tin), usually of the time near dawn, not near evening
tindómerel "daughter of the twilight",
poetic name for the nightingale (Sindarin Tinúviel)
"cause to sparkle", in Tintallë "Kindler", a title of
Varda who made the stars (SA:tin, MR:388)
Tintallë "Kindler", a title of Varda who
kindled the stars (Nam, RGEO:67). From tinta- "kindle,
make to sparkle" (MR:388)
"twinkle", present pl. tintilar (Nam, RGEO:67)
pl. tinwi "sparks", properly used of the star-imagines on
Nur-menel (q.v.). Cf. nillë. (MR:388)
"watch, watch over, guard, heed", future tense tiruva in
Markirya, also in CO with pronominal endings:
tiruvantes "they will guard it" (tir-uva-nte-s
"guard-will-they-it"). The stem also occurs in
palantíri (q.v.), Tirion "Great Watchtower", a
city of the Elves (SA:tir; in MR:176 the translation is "Watchful
(FS; replaced by te in mature
in Tol Eressëa "The Lonely Isle" (Silm)
"spring", in the calendar of Imladris a precisely defined period of
54 days, but also used without any exact definition. Cf.
tuilérë *"Spring-day", a day outside the months in
the Steward's Reckoning, inserted between Súlimë
and Víressë (March and April) (Appendix
"come", perfect utúlië "has come"
(utúlien "I am come", EO), utúlie'n
aurë "Day has come" (the function of the 'n is
unclear; it may simply be inserted for euphony). Past tense
túlë "came" in LR:47 and SD:246; read perhaps
*tullë in mature Quenya.
("tulka") "yellow". Adopted and adapted from Valarin.
of a Vala, adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:399)
valley" (Letters:308; SA:tum gives tumbo
"valley"); apparently an extended form *tumbalë in
tumbalemorna "deepvalleyblack" or (according to SA:tum)
"black deep valley", also tumbaletaurëa
name of the hill on which Tirion was built (Silm), derived
from a stem TUN apparently meaning simply *"hill, mound"
"cover", isolated from untúpa, q.v.
masc. name, "Master of Doom" (Appendix A, SA:tur)
"strong, powerful (in body) Finwë", masc. name; he was
called Celegorm in Sindarin. Short Quenya name
name of the Númenóreans (LR:47, 56; SD:246). Sg.
Túrin (masc. name), apparently meaning
"victory-mood" (LR:395, stem TUR). The Etymologies gives
Turindo as the Quenya form of this name; Túrin
seems to be properly the Sindarin form, though it fits Quenya style
well enough and Nienor used it in a Quenya sentence (near the end of
ch. 21 in the Silmarillion)
Túrosto "Gabilgathol", a dwelling of the
Dwarves (Sindarin Belegost; the names mean "Mickleburg",
Turucáno ("-káno") "Turgon"
*turúna "mastered", only attested in the
elided form turún' (UT:138, apparently incomplete
spelling turun in Silm ch. 21). The form
must be understood as the past participle of tur- "wield,
control, govern", but we would normally expect *túrina
"find", perfect utúvië "has found" in Aragorn's
exclamation when he found the sapling of the White Tree:
utúvienyes "I have found it"
(utúvie-nye-s "have found-I-it") (LotR3:VI ch.
tyávë pl. tyáver "taste",
noun (pl. attested only in the compound
lámatyávë, -tyáver, q.v.)
("tyelka") "hasty"; Tyelcormo ("Tyelkormo")
"hasty-riser", mother-name (never used in narrative) of
Turcafinwë = Celegorm (PM:353)
(pl. tyeller attested) "grade" (Appendix E)
"silver", see Letters:426 or UT:266 for etymology.
Tyelperinquar "Silver-fist, Celebrimbor" (PM:318; also
Telperinqar, q.v.); tyelpetéma
"palatal series" (Appendix E); Tyelperion less common
name of Telperion (UT:266). Tyelpë is the
true Quenya descendant of primitive *kyelepê, but the
Telerin form telpë was more common, "for the Teleri
prized silver above gold, and their skill as silversmiths was
esteemed even by the Noldor" (UT:266).
Therindë "Needlewoman", original form of
Serindë, before the shift th > s
(PM:333, where the special letter thorn is
used instead of the digraph th)
original form of Sindicollo, before the shift th >
s (PM:337, where the special letter
thorn is used instead of the digraph
Úamanyar "those not of Aman", Elves who did
not reach the Blessed Realm (but did leave Cuiviénen with the
intention of going there) = Heceldi (WJ:371). Also
Úmanyar and fuller Úmaneldi.
ufárëa "not enough" (FS)
of a Maia, spouse of Ossë. Adopted and adapted from Valarin
(WJ:404), though it is also said that it contains -nen
"water" (SA:nen); the latter explanation may be folk
etymology. In the Etymologies, the name is derived from the
same stem as uilë "long trailing plant, especially
seaweed" (LR:396 stem UY)
Úlairi "Nazgûl" (sg.
*Úlairë? *Úlair?) Etymology
"poured", a past tense of ulya- "pour" occurring in LR:47;
read probably *uller in mature Quenya. In SD:247,
ullier is translated "should flow".
an word occurring in Fíriel's Song, evidently meaning
"not for ever".
of a Vala, interpreted "the Pourer" by folk etymology, but the name
was actually adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:400)
Ulumúri The great horns of Ulmo; etymology
Úmaneldi *"Non-Aman Elves", Elves who never
dwelt in Aman (= Úmanyar) (WJ:373)
Úmanyar "those not of Aman", Eldar that did
not reach Aman, sc. Sindar and Nandor (SA:mân). Also
"fate", also name of tengwa 6 (Appendix E)
"Umbar-victor" (Appendix A); the place-name Umbar is
not Quenya and has no connection to umbar "fate"
"Fated", mother-name (never used in narrative) of
Telufinwë = Amras. The ominous name was altered to
Ambarto by Fëanor. (PM:353-354)
undómë "twilight", usually of the time
near evening, not near dawn (that is tindómë)
"down", in undulávë "down-licked" = covered.
Lumbulë undulávë ilyë tier "(heavy)
shadow down-licked all paths", lyrical translation "all paths are
drowned deep in shadow"
"spider's web", also name of tengwa 8 (Appendix E)
*únótima "numberless", pl.
(ú-nót-imë "not-count-able") (Nam,
RGEO:66, Appendix E)
"a hollow", also name of tengwa 16 (Appendix E)
untúpa "down-roofs" = covers (perhaps for
*undutúpa-, cf. undu-). Present tense of
untup- with lengthening of the stem vowel and the suffix
-a (cf. síla "shines" from sil-)
unuhuinë "under-shadow" (LR:47); see
únyárima "impossible to recount"
(because all the facts are not known, or the tale is to long"
úquétima "unspeakable", sc.
impossible to say, put into words; also "unpronounceable"
Úr-anar word occurring in Fíriel's
Song, translated "the red sun"; actually the prefixed element
úr- must have to do with the element ur- "heat,
be hot" mentioned in the Silmarillion Appendix.
("urko") pl. urqui an old word used in the lore of the
Blessed Realm for anything that caused fear to the Elves during the
March; by the Exiles recognized as the cognate of Sindarin
orch and used to mean "Orc". The Sindarin-influenced form
orco was also used. (WJ:390)
úrë "heat", also name of tengwa 36
Úrimë (in some editions
Urimë, but cf. úrë "heat") eighth
month of the year, "August" (Appendix D, SA:ur-, UT:302)
Urulóki "fire-dragons" (SA:ur-)
utúlien see tul-
of the first great stronghold of Melkor (SA:tum)
utúvienyes see *tuv-
"will not", future tense of a negative verb (present tense
úyë?) in Fíriel's Song
tense ending. In laituvalmet, tiruvantes,
enquantuva, cenuva, caluva.
úyë a verb occurring in
Fíriel's Song, apparently ye "is" with the negative
prefix ú-, hence "is not" (úyë
sérë indo-ninya símen, translated "my hearth
resteth not here", literally evidently *"[there] is not rest [for] my
(exclamation) "I will not!" or "Do not!"; ván,
ványë "I won't!", vammë "we won't"
possessive ending, in Eldaliéva,
miruvóreva, Oroméva. Pl. -vë
when governing a plural word (from archaic -vai)
(WJ:407), but it seems that -va was used throughout in
late Exilix Quenya (cf. miruvóreva governing the plural
word yuldar in Namárië)
vaháya "far away" (LR:47, SD:310).
Also spelt vaihaiya (SD:247)
"the Weaver", name of a Valië (Silm)
"Powers", angelic spirits guarding the world on behalf of its
Creator, sometimes called Gods. Sg. vala "angelic power", also
name of tengwa 22 (Appendix E). Usually capitalized
Vala. Gen. pl. Valion "of the Valar" (FS); this
form shows the pl. Vali, (irregular) alternative to
Valar (the gen.pl. could certainly be *Valaron as
well). Pl. allative valannar *"to/on the Valar" (LR:47, 56;
SD:246). Vala is properly a verb "has power" (sc. over the
matter of Eä), also used as a noun "a Power" (WJ:403).
The verb vala- "rule, order", used with reference to the
Valar only, is attested only in the sentences á vala
Manwë! "may Manwë order it!" and Valar valuvar
"the will of the Valar will be done" (WJ:404). Names:
Valacar masc. name, *"Vala-head"??? (Appendix A),
Valandil masc. name, "God-friend, *Vala-friend" (Appendix
A, translated in LR:60), Valandur masc. name,
*"Vala-servant" (Appendix A)
"Sickle of the Gods", a name of the Great Bear (Big Dipper)
constellation (SA:val-, MR:388)
"the land of the Valar", confused with and replaced by
Valinórë "the people of the Valar", short form
Valinor (SA:dôr, Silm)
last day of the Eldarin six-day week, dedicated to the Valar
(Appendix D). Etymology, see Letters:427. Also called
"Account of the Valar" (SA:val-)
("Valarauko") "Demon of Might" (here
vala- assumes its basic meaning "power"),
Sindarin balrog (WJ:415). Pl. Valaraucar (not
-or) "Balrogs" (SA:val-, SA:rauco)
Valaróma "Vala-horn", Oromë's horn
female Vala, pl. Valier (Silm)
"Vala-home", a region in Valinor also called Valmar. In
Namárië, this word is used = Valinor.
Valinórë, Valinor "the land (or
people) of the Valar"; cf. Valandor.
alternative form of Valimar (Silm)
a Valië, the wife of Oromë (Silm, WJ:383)
"oath, pledge, solemn promise" (CO)
vánë past tense of auta-, q.v.
vánië an augmentless perfect of
auta- that may occur in verse; regular avánië
"beautiful", nominal pl. vanimar "beautiful ones", partitive
pl. genitive vanimálion, translated "of beautiful
children", but literally meaning *"of [some] beautiful ones")
(LotR3:VI ch. 6, translated in Letters:308). Arwen
vanimalda "Beautiful Arwen", literally "Arwen your beauty" (see
-lda for reference; changed to Arwen vanimelda in the
second edition of LotR)
*"your beautiful"; Arwen vanimalda "Arwen your beauty =
beautiful Arwen" (WJ:369; Tolkien emended
vanimalda to vanimelda in
the second edition of LotR; see under
Vanimeldë fem. name, *"Beautiful-Dear-One"
"gone, lost, no longer to be had, vanished, departed, dead, past and
over" (WJ:365, Nam, RGEO:67)
"fair" (FS); nominal pl. Vanyar "the Fair", the first
clan of the Eldar; the original meaning of this stem was "pale,
light-coloured, not brown or dark" (WJ:380, 381)
váquet- (1. pers. aorist
váquetin and 1. pers. past tense
váquenten are given) "to say no" (not denying that
something is true, but denying to do or to allow something: "to say I
will not/do not"; "to refuse", "to forbid" (WJ:370, 371)
Sublime", name of a Valië (WJ:402; in Letters:282
Varda is translated the "Lofty"), the Queen
of the Valar, spouse of Manwë, called Elbereth in
Sindarin; genitive Vardo (for *Vardao). (Nam,
RGEO:66). Vardamir masc. name, *"Varda-jewel" (Appendix
A); vardarianna ?"Varda-gift", name of a tree (but the
ri element is obscure) (UT:167)
"the Consumer", a name of the Sun (MR:130)
like" (Nam, RGEO:66, Markirya)
(Old Quenya wéra) "personal, private, own"
sky", also name of tengwa 24. Older wilya. (Appendix
Vingilot, Vingilótë "Foam-flower", name of
Eärendil's ship (SA:wing, Silm)
*"New Dwelling" (Silm)
Vinyarië "Newyear's Day" (PM:127)
Víressë fourth month of the year,
"April" (Appendix D)
vórima "steadfast in allegiance, in keeping
oath or promise, faithful"; genitive vórimo in a
variant of Cirion's Oath; see UT:317
"steadfast in allegiance, in keeping oath or promise, faithful", used
as a title of Elendil Voronda; genitive Vorondo in
masc.name, *"Faithful friend" (Appendix A)
voronwë "steadfastness, loyalty,
faithfulness" (CO), also masc. name Voronwë
suffix occurring in many personal names, generally but not
exclusively masculine; derived from a stem simply meaning "person"
"maiden", a frequent ending in feminine names like Eärwen
Old Quenya form of véra, q.v.
"vague, fluttering to and fro" (Markirya)
"butterfly" (Markirya); Wilwarin name of a
constellation, tentatively identified as Cassiopeia.
"foam, spray" (Markirya)
"scatter, blow about" (both transitive and intransitive)
"wailing" (noun), from which is derived the adjective
yaimëa "wailing", pl. yaimië in
"summon". In enyalië "to recall" (Notes on CO,
pronoun "which, what" (attested in the Arctic sentence), with
locative suffix in Namárië: see
yallumë "at last" (FS)
"bridge", also name of tengwa 35 (Appendix E)
"growl, snarl" (stem used as participle in Markirya,
"in which", pl. yassen referring back to a plural noun.
"fruit-giver", name of a Valië (cf. yávë);
Yavannië name of the ninth month of the year, "September"
(Appendix D, SA:yávë); Yavannildi
"Followers of Yavanna", Elvish women who knew and kept the secret of
the making of coimas (lembas) (PM:404);
yavannamírë "Yavanna-jewel", name of a tree with
globed and scarlet fruits (UT:167)
yávë "fruit"; cf. Yavanna
(SA:yávë); "autumn, harvest", in the calendar of
Imladris a precisely defined period of 54 days, but also used without
any exact definition (Appendix D);
yáviérë *"Autumn-day", a day outside the
months in the Steward's Reckoning, inserted between
Yavannië and Narquelië (September and
October) (Appendix D)
(FS); replaced by ná in mature Quenya. Future
tense yéva, q.v.
untranslated interjection in Aragorn's exclamation when he found the
sapling of the White Tree: *"yeah!"
(pl. yéni in Nam, obsoleting
yen[i] in the Etymologies, stem YEN), Elvish
"long year" of 144 solar years, 52,596 days (Nam, Appendix D, E;
RGEO:66. Tolkien originally defined yén
as 100 solar years; see PM:126)
Yénonótië *"reckoning of years"
yestarë *"first-day", the first day of the
year (loa), immediately before tuilë
"will be" (also "there will be"), apparently the future tense of
ye. Once translated "is" (írë ilqua yéva
nótina, "when all is counted"), but this event belongs to
the future; hence literally *"when all will be counted"
yomenië "meeting, gathering" (of three or more
coming from different directions) (WJ:407)
"draught", pl. yuldar (Nam, RGEO:66)
(Nam, RGEO:67), "drinking-vessel" (WJ:416)
"drinking, carousal" (WJ:416)top